Nature of Society and its Relation with Individual
Nature of Society: The question of the nature of society is closely connected with the question of the relationship of man and society. Long ago Aristotle had said. To say that the origin of Japanese values and culture lies in Japanese people's close relationship with nature would not be an overstatement. Top. The relation of nature and society is important in Marx's work, and, as it is argued, Marx's work is still largely relevant today. Durkheim's dictum that social facts.
The references used in this analysis, despite being distinct in many aspects, enable a comparison of two representative periods of standards constructed around said relation - or relations, considering the existing diversity, both in nature as well as in societies.
This article highlights specific elements that enable a comparison of periods through the relation between society and nature.
It assesses forms of land use and occupation, where forest cover appears as a relevant indicator; as well as agents and social groups, their interests and actions, especially institutions and scales of power responsible for dominion over land, rivers, forests, mineral resources, etc and patterns of appropriation and use of natural resources.
The paper then conducts a comparative analysis and discussion of the relations between society and nature during the two periods: Despite the long interval separating the two, years, each period is representative of hegemonic patterns of relationship between society and nature in space and in time, with a critical point of inflection in the s and s.
Since we began by following Coudreau's reports on the rivers and river valleys he traveled, we had to delimit the water basins, which we did using the river hierarchy method proposed by Strahler This method consists in placing channels in a hierarchy based on bifurcation relations, attributing an increasing order to them beginning with tributary-less rivers, which receive the weight of 1.
When two rivers of value 1 meet, a weight or order of 2 is attributed to the channel segment isolated by that confluence.
Next, two rivers with a value of 2 form a segment of channel of type 3 and so on. Whenever rivers of different hierarchies meet, the higher order of value prevails.
The main river is classified by the weight it presents at its mouth, and then the hierarchy of the basin as a whole is established. Specifically regarding the traveler's report, we must stress that it is a set of direct observations, resulting from empirically addressing space or the landscape.
Phenomena are observed empirical evidence in succession as the journey progresses, without necessarily any synthesis of the spaces visited, which reveals the inductive method implicit in Coudreau's work  Within the more general scientific contest of its time, his report strives to impart something of the expeditions that sought to unveil the world little known to Europeans - the oceans, deserts, savannas, rainforests and mountains of Africa, Asia and America.
The available instruments used at that time, such as the compass, complemented the observations. Orbital images, on the other hand, enable direct contact with the space, while at the same time, the satellite can cover a larger surface area. By basing the analysis on a larger area, a synthesis can be reached more quickly, using deduction. The same tool enabled a multi-spectral classification into area units where land cover was the variable used: The methodology also included a review of literature, a survey of documents and maps and field work, since indirect analysis through geoprocessing tools and other laboratory techniques are insufficient to understand a given space.
Furthermore, for purposes of comparison, direct observation, as done earlier by Coudreau was necessary, focusing on the most relevant facts while on-site. He characterized the rubber latex as difficult to coagulate and rated it at a lower price than that produced by the Para rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. Coudreau seemed surprised with the high density of Brazil nut trees, which covered the upland areas as far as the eye could see. He pointed out that in some stretches of the forest covering the hills, the trees formed "plant communities" or even "groves".
Ironically, he called the gatherers and caucheiros the last "civilized" men. He stressed the small scale of the extractive activities in the following texts: In front of a small rapid called "Seco do Saranzal", four abandoned barges, at the right bank, once more prove that the local species of rubber has not been able to secure the survival of those who devoted themselves to rubber tapping.
Even at this point, which is almost dry [up stream on the Cachoera Grande falls], we still find the remains of the recent passage of civilized people: The low population number in the village was stressed in statements such as: The few families who actually work along the river banks are so attached to the land that they do not even bother to build - for shelter - the traditional huts, which can be seen in a great number on other river banks.
A mere roof made of palm leaves, 2 meters long and as tall as a sitting person: A temporary dwelling, it's true, but whole families live beneath such poor shelters; small human groups, whose members stretch their hammocks not very high from the floor, under a dozen palm trees, which form the wild roof only 1 meter above their heads Coudreau, About the preference for extractive activities rather than agriculture, he wrote: It is true that not even one year has gone by since people started to settle along the banks of this river, but the absence of any trace of culture does not seem to indicate any idea of definite intention to stay.
The region was covered in primary forest until the end of the 19th century, Coudreau pointed out a significant number of subsistence crops and even cattle, reported by the author as relevant only in the middle valleys of the Tocantins and Araguaia rivers.
Therefore, in river sub-basins to the west of the middle Tocantins valley, forest products extraction was the predominant activity. Coudreau, however, said the island near the mouth of the Parauapebas River should be called "Confluence Island". The irregular landscape and the existence of Brazil nut trees on the hill sides were noticed by the observer. A large mountain range rises above the Pedras Chatas falls and Cachoeira Seca falls,with "a central rocky crest, which reminds one of the Aribaru mountain range in the Xingu River" Coudreau, Proceeding with his trip up to the Parauapebas River, Coudreau finds a rather solid range - the Serra do Parauapebas - with some high peaks measuring meters or more of relative altitude Coudreau, But climbing up the land, the groves appeared in larger numbers.
According to the writer, the matter would be settled by people who would come afterwards. The state, which comprises in itself the essential elements of the preceding stages, namely, the family and the civil society, is the final dialectical evolution of mind and represents its highest embodiment upon earth.
The will of state is the perfect manifestation of Absolute Reason. The individual has reality only in so far as he is a member of the state.
Apart from it he is merely an abstraction. He derives all the value and significance and ethical status he possesses from its membership. State is not merely some millions of men and women residing in a given territory and subject to a common sovereignty, but is a group of mind.What is Society in Hindi - Sociology
The group of minds becomes a group-mind by virtue of the common purpose uniting them. Even though the group-mind cannot exist apart from the minds of the individuals, nevertheless, it is a reality. The group-mind is superior to the minds of the individuals. It is the higher form of psychic life and absorbs the individual mind from which it differs not only in the richness of content but also in kind. The idea of the group-mind found a strong advocate in McDougall.
Both of them suggest that society is not merely a group exhibiting certain traits, characteristics of its members generally but is itself a mind and a reality. The group-mind theory has been subjected to severe criticism by critics like Professors Hobhouse, Laski and MacIver.
That society is something more than a mere aggregate of individuals is conceded by these critics but that it has a mind or will of its own distinct from the minds and wills of the individuals, who constitute it is not conceded by-them.
The only centres of feeling and of activity are the individual selves. In society these selves are bound together by inter-relationships which they themselves create. When we say that our minds are closely identified in the furtherance of a cause, we only use a metaphor indicating that we are jointly co-operating towards that cause.
There may be said to exist a group-mind, a social mind, a college mind without being attached, however, any mental act to them. Therefore, to ascribe a mind to society and to place it by the side of individual mind fails to do justice to the individuality of the social being.
The Relationship between Individual and Society: The theories just presented above, as we have seen, fail to explain adequately the relationship between the individual and society. The Social Contract theory puts undue emphasis upon the individual minimising thereby the value of society which is said to be a mere instrument devised for the satisfaction of certain human needs.
The organic and group-mind theories almost entirely discount the role of individual in social life. The relationship between individual and society is not one sided as these theories seem to indicate.
Before we proceed to examine the true relationship between individual and society we may just see in what sense man can be called a social animal. Man can be called a social animal on three bases: Man is Social by Nature: Firstly, man is a social animal by nature. No human being is known to have normally developed in isolation.
Environment & Society - The Environmental Literacy Council
The first case was of Kaspar Houser, who from his childhood until his seventeenth year was brought up in the woods of Nuremberg. In his case it was found that at the age of seventeen he could hardly walk, had the mind of an infant and could mutter only a few meaningless phrases.
In spite of his subsequent education he could never make himself a normal man. The second case was of two Hindu children who in were discovered in a wolf den. One of the children died soon after discovery. The other child could walk only on all fours, possessed no language except wolf like growls. She was shy of human beings and afraid of them.
It was only after careful and sympathetic training that she could learn some social habits. The third case was of Anna, an illegitimate American child who had been placed in a room at the age of six months and discovered five years later.
On discovery it was found that she could not walk or speak and was indifferent to people around her. These cases prove that human being is social by nature. Human nature develops in man only when he lives in society, only when he shares with his fellow beings common life. The children cited above had capacity to learn but failed to develop their human traits in the absence of human contacts.
Even the sadhus who have retired from worldly life live in the company of their fellows in the forest. Similarly helplessness at the time of birth compels him to live in society.
A nutrition, shelter, warmth and affection need compels him to live in society. Thus for the satisfaction of human wants man lives in society. Hence it is also true that not only for nature but also for the fulfillment of his needs and necessities man lives in society. Society not only fulfils his physical needs and determines his social nature but also determines his personality and guides the course of development of human mind.
Development of human mind and self is possible only living in society. Society moulds our attitudes, beliefs, morals, ideals and thereby moulds individual personality. Man acquires a self or personality only living in a society. From birth to death individual acquires different social qualities by social interaction with his fellow beings which moulds his personality.
Individual mind without society remains undeveloped at infant stage. Thus, from the above discussion we conclude that Man is a social animal. His nature and necessities makes him a social being. He also depends on society to be a human being.
He acquires personality within society. There exists a very close relationship between individual and society like that of cells and body.
Nature of Society and its Relation with Individual
Relation between Individual and Society Human cannot survive without society and societies cannot exist without members. Likewise can competition with other societies strengthen the social system, while wearing out its constituent members? This idea was voiced by Rousseau who believed that we lived better in the original state of nature than under civilization, and who was for that reason less positive about classic Greek civilization than his contemporaries.
The relation between individual and society has been an interesting and a complex problem at the same time. It can be stated more or less that it has defied all solutions so far. No sociologist has been able to give a solution of the relation between the two that will be fully satisfactory and convincing by reducing the conflict between the two to the minimum and by showing a way in which both will tend to bring about a healthy growth of each other.
Aristotle has treated of the individual only from the point of view of the state and he wants the individual to fit in the mechanism of the state and the society. It is very clear that relation between individual and society are very close.
So we will discuss here Rawls three models of the relation between the individual and society: His most telling argument against the utilitarian position is that it conflates the system of desires of all individuals and arrives at the good for a society by treating it as one large individual choice.
It is a summing up over the field of individual desires. Utilitarianism has often been described as individualistic, but Rawls argues convincingly that the classical utilitarian position does not take seriously the plurality and distinctness of individuals .
It applies to society the principle of choice for one man. Rawls also observes that the notion of the ideal observer or the impartial sympathetic spectator is closely bound up with this classical utilitarian position.
It is only from the perspective of some such hypothetical sympathetic ideal person that the various individual interests can be summed over an entire society .
The paradigm presented here, and rejected by Rawls, is one in which the interests of society are considered as the interests of one person. Plurality is ignored, and the desires of individuals are conflated. The tension between individual and society is resolved by subordinating the individual to the social sum. The social order is conceived as a unity. The principles of individual choice, derived from the experience of the self as a unity, are applied to society as a whole.
Rawls rightly rejects this position as being unable to account for justice, except perhaps by some administrative decision that it is desirable for the whole to give individuals some minimum level of liberty and happiness. But individual persons do not enter into the theoretical position.
They are merely sources or directions from which desires are drawn. Justice as Fairness The second paradigm is that which characterizes the original position. It has already been suggested that this is a picture of an aggregate of individuals, mutually disinterested, and conceived primarily as will. While not necessarily egoistic, their interests are each of their own choosing.
They have their own life plans. They coexist on the same geographical territory and they have roughly similar needs and interests so that mutually advantageous cooperation among them is possible. Thus, one can say, in brief, that the circumstances of justice obtain whenever mutually disinterested persons put forward conflicting claims to the division of social advantages under conditions of moderate scarcity .
Here the tension between individual and society is resolved in favor of plurality, of an aggregate of mutually disinterested individuals occupying the same space at the same time. It is resolved in favor of the plural, while giving up any social unity which might obtain. The classical utilitarian model and the original position as sketched by Rawls provide paradigms for two polar ways in which the tension between the plurality of individuals and the unity of social structure might be resolved.
One resolution favors unity and the other favors plurality. It is described as a good, as an end in itself which is a shared end. This paradigm is distinct both from the conflated application to the entire society of the principle of choice for one person and from the conception of society as an aggregate of mutually disinterested individuals.
The idea of a social union is described in contrast to the idea of a private society. A private society is essentially the second model as realized in the actual world. It stems from a consideration of the conditions of the original position as descriptive of a social order. Over against this notion of private society, Rawls proposes his idea of a social union .
It is one in which final ends are shared and communal institutes are valued. Marx and Engels on Relationship between Individuals and Society The direct elaborations of Marx and Engels on relationships between individual action and social process can be divided into three categories for purposes of discussion: Besides, the relationship between individual and society can be viewed from another three angles: Functionalist, Inter-actionist, and Culture and personality.
How Society Affects the Individual? What is the relation between individual and society? Functionalists regard the individual as formed by society through the influence of such institutions as the family, school and workplace.
Early sociologists such as Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim and even Karl Marx were functionalists, examined society as existing apart from the individual. For Durkheim, society is reality; it is first in origin and importance to the individual. In contrast to Auguste Comte known as father of sociologywho regarded the individual as a mere abstraction, a somewhat more substantial position by Durkheim held that the individual was the recipient of group influence and social heritage.
How Is Society Constructed? How an individual helps in building society? For inter-actionists, it is through the interaction of the people that the society is formed. The main champion of this approach was Max Weber social action theoristwho said that society is built up out of the interpretations of individuals. The structuralists or functionalists tend to approach the relationship of self individual and society from the point of the influence of society on the individual.
A prominent theorist of the last century, Talcott Parsons developed a general theory for the study of society called action theory, based on the methodological principle of voluntarism and the epistemological principle of analytical realism. The theory attempted to establish a balance between two major methodological traditions: For Parsons, voluntarism established a third alternative between these two.
He added that, the structure of society which determines roles and norms, and the cultural system which determines the ultimate values of ends. His theory was severely criticized by George Homans. A recent well-known theorist Anthony Giddens has not accepted the idea of some sociologists that society has an existence over and above individuals.