Republic of Slovenia - Republic of Italy
During World War II, Germany occupied Yugoslavia, and Slovenia was divided among Germany, Italy, and Hungary. For the duration of the war many Slovenes. Italian-Slovenian relations are foreign relations between Italy and Slovenia. The two countries share km of border. Italy and Slovenia established diplomatic. Italy-Slovenia: 20 years of fruitful relations, says Terzi the arts, the fruitful and dynamic bilateral relationship between Italy and Slovenia”.
An old Yugoslav People's Army barracks building stands there that is used as an outpost by the Slovenian Army. Diplomacy has kept this dispute from escalating. The two regions became part of the Habsburg Monarchy in The two regions became part Slovenia and Croatia, respectively, in The border, however, has customarily remained as previously determined;[ citation needed ] thus, the border today does not strictly follow the present-day river's course.
Slovenia has proposed that the border follow the present-day river, but Croatia has rejected this. This solution included a Croatian "maritime exclave " between Italian and Slovenian waters. However, there are interpretations that such a solution breaks the Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zonewhich prohibits sovereignty over parts of the sea unconnected to land.
The Parliament of Slovenia ratified this agreement. Slovenia never officially informed Croatia of abandoning the agreement; a Slovene—Croatian working group continued to work for a year and a half on the matter.
These two countries joined the EU while Croatia's negotiations were stalled by the EU's accusations that it was unwilling to apprehend Ante Gotovina on its territory and deliver him to the Hague on war crimes charges; Gotovina was actually located and captured in Spain.
The activists stated they were visiting Joras, who lives on the narrow strip of disputed land and claims it to be a part of Slovenia. Podobnik, also known for his suggestions to hold a referendum in Slovenia on whether Croatia should enter the EU, stated for Globus magazine that "the map is logical because on the day of 25 June Slovenia had possession over the whole Piran Bay and unlimited access to international waters".
Therefore, Slovenia blocked Croatia's negotiation chapters for its EU membership that included the controversial documents. The blockade was strongly criticized by Croatian officials.
Croatia suggested a border arbitration by a third party, while the Slovenian government suggested that the dispute be resolved through a special Croatian—Slovene commission. In Septemberafter Jadranka Kosor became Croatia's Prime Minister, she reached an agreement[ clarification needed ] with Pahor, who subsequently announced an end to the month blockade.
France, then the head of the EU presidency, moved to prevent a possible blockade.
On 21 NovemberPahor gave a speech declaring that for the "last 14 days we have been in lively contact with the French EU presidency and are thankful for taking into consideration of our objections, so that the issue can be resolved on the adequate way". The Croatian government responded that it just gave maps to the EU for the negotiation process, which simply show the border based on the former Yugoslav republics' borders.
Pahor stated that he will "study the French suggestion for a compromise, but only under the condition that the documents which were prepared by Croatia for the accession negotiations don't prejudge the state border and that both the European Commission and the Council of EU understand that stance".
The ministers did not confirm the suggestion by the European Commission EC that Croatia's EU accession negotiations end by ; this was because of Slovenia's threat of a veto if the border dispute with Croatia was not resolved.
As a consequence, the ministers did not record a conclusion date for the EU—Croatia negotiations. Croatia had initially hoped to join by or Italian foreign minister Pasquale Ferrara stated that "Member states, understandingly, do not want another border row inside the EU", concluding that one revolving around Cyprus is already enough.
Following a discussion with the EC, Pahor said, "Zagreb should accept the negotiation plan for the border dispute which was suggested by Slovenia to France". Pahor initially gave hints that Ljubljana was ready to find a solution at the negotiating table. In food safety, the disputed point was the Croatian epicontinental area in the Adriatic sea.
In infrastructuremaps were enclosed that show the proposed sea border. In the area of regional policymaking, the stumbling point was the intervention plan in case of sea pollution, which mentions the ZERPand maps were enclosed which show the proposed sea border. In the chapter on justice, maps were enclosed that show the border crossings, mentioning Plovanija and cadastral parcels from the cadastre which was created after 25 June In the chapter on the Environment, the ZERP was mentioned and maps were enclosed that show the proposed sea border.
He added that for any arbitration Slovenia would not use documents that were created after 25 June and the Conference at Brijuni. The explanation was that the statistics chapter contained maps with Croatia's borders pre-drawn against Slovenia's wishes. Slovenia was the only EU member country that withheld its consent for the closing of the Freedom of Movement for Workers chapter.
Slovene officials said the reason for such a decision was that in its documents submitted to the European Commission, Croatia referred to the Act on the Office of Notary Public, which in turn referred to the Act on Towns and Municipalities and its list of towns and municipalities in Croatia, including four border villages in Istria that Slovenia disputes.
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Italy to step up border controls with Slovenia
Slovenia's proximity to the Alps and the Mediterranean, along with its climate, makes it a popular tourist destination. The business derived from tourist hotels, ski resorts, golf courses, and horseback-riding centers provides employment for a growing number of Slovenes. Major industries include the production of electrical equipment, processed food, paper and paper products, chemicals, textiles, metal and wood products, and electricity. Other important industries include the manufacturing of shoes, skis, and furniture.
Coal mines and steel mills continue to operate and new factories, such as the French Renault car assembly plant, reflect recent foreign investment in Slovenia.
Germany is Slovenia's most important trading partner both for exports and imports. Other important trading partners include Croatia, Italy, France, and Austria. Exports include chemical products, food and live animals, furniture, machinery, and transportation equipment. Slovenia imports manufactured products and consumer goods. In the process of privatizing state-owned businesses was begun and many Slovenes have taken advantage of these changes to become owners of or shareholders in companies.
A large section of the population works in the tourism industry, but only one out of ten people work in agriculture. Many Slovenes, however, pursue small-scale agricultural activities, such as beekeeping and grape growing, as side businesses. Social Stratification Classes and Castes.
According to the census, 87 percent of people are Slovenes. There are approximately 8, ethnic Hungarians, 3, Italians, and 2, Gypsies living in Slovenia. The Hungarian and Italian populations are recognized by the government as indigenous minorities and are protected under the constitution. The Gypsies, however, are viewed with suspicion and are frequently targets of ethnic discrimination. Despite government attempts, past and present, to provide employment and increase school attendance among Gypsies, most of them continue to hold on to their nomadic way of life, shunning mainstream education and jobs.
Since the start of civil unrest in other regions of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia has become a refuge for those escaping from both violence and poor economic conditions. There are also several thousand migrants from Croatia who enter Slovenia every day to work. The peasants, who once accounted for a large part of the population, decreased dramatically in numbers during the post-World War II era as Slovenia, along with the rest of Yugoslavia, underwent a rapid transformation from an agricultural to an industrial society.
By the early s, over half of agricultural workers were women. Postwar industrialization created a new class of workers, including government employees who achieved desirable positions through education and political connections. A small intellectual caste has been present in Slovenia since the nineteenth century.
Croatia–Slovenia border disputes - Wikipedia
A large section of Slovenia's population is now a part of the well-educated, urban-dwelling middle class. Extreme class differences between rich and poor are not present. Symbols of Social Stratification. Symbols of social stratification include the types of consumer goods found in many Western countries. As Slovenia's A Slovenian peasant removes corn from the dried cobs while his wife holds his new hat. Clothing is one sign of Slovenia's new affluence; the country has one of the strongest economies among the formerly socialist East European nations.
Cars, electronic appliances, and clothing are the most immediate signs of social stratification and the new affluence.
The process of government reform has been ongoing since the country's emergence as an independent nation in While some aspects of the former socialist rule have been maintained, the Slovene government has adopted several democratic measures, including a parliamentary form of government. A constitution guarantees basic civil rights, including universal suffrage for all Slovenes over the age of eighteen, freedom of religion, and freedom of the press.
The National Assembly, or Drzavni Zbor, has exclusive control over the passage of new laws and consists of ninety deputies elected for four years by proportional representation. There is also a forty-member Council of State, the Drzavni Svet, which functions as an advisory body and whose members are elected for five-year terms by region and special interest group. The president is the head of state and supreme commander of the armed forces and cannot be elected for more than two five-year terms.
Executive power is held by the prime minister and a fifteen-member cabinet. Leadership and Political Officials. The seven political parties in Slovenia support ideologies ranging from the far right to the center-left. In the parliamentary elections a centrist alliance of three parties gained the majority. President Milan Kucan was elected for a second term inand Janez Drnovsek has served as prime minister since the first elections were held in Social Problems and Control.
Important social problems and issues include the country's transition to a free market economy, an aging population the average age for men is thirty-five, for women, thirty-eightcreating jobs for an educated population, and coping with the increasing number of migrant workers and refugees. The crime rate is low but there has been a rise in organized and economic crime since Slovenia's independence and change to privatization. Money laundering is a particularly increasing problem.
Slovenia's location between Italy, Austria, and Hungary puts it in the middle of international money-laundering schemes.
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- Republic of Slovenia - Republic of Italy
- Italy–Slovenia relations
The Slovene government is actively fighting the resulting problems. Foundry workers pouring molten metal into molds. While women comprise 45 percent of the workforce, they are largely confined to the welfare, public services, and hospitality fields. Slovenia requires seven months of military service for all males at age eighteen.
As ofthe country had an army of 9, active duty soldiers as well as a reserve force. In Slovenia women comprise 45 percent of the overall workforce and more than 60 percent of the workforce in the agricultural sector. In addition, primary school teachers are almost exclusively women.
Industrialization and education have dramatically changed women's roles in the workplace, but aspects of Slovenia's traditionally patriarchal society still persist. Women work primarily in three fields: The Relative Status Women and Men.
Although women were granted complete civil and political rights after World War II, feminist groups state that industrialization has not eradicated the traditional patriarchy but has only created a situation where women are exploited. Women are often treated as sex objects and are still expected to take care of all domestic matters even if they work full-time outside the home.
Marriage, Family and Kinship Marriage. Despite years of socialism, Slovenian society is still oriented around the extended family. Rights and duties are more rigorously defined by family relationships than in the West.
Although the average age for a first marriage has increased, marriage is considered important for maintaining and strengthening family bonds. Religious and cultural influences help keep the divorce rate low.
In urban areas, the domestic unit is typically married adults and their children, if they have any, and sometimes older relatives. In rural areas, extended families—often larger than those found in cities—live together or share property.
Relatives who are unable to care for themselves usually reside with family members. Before the twentieth century, family-based organizations called zadruga held property and farmed land in common.
Both formal and customary law determined the obligations and rights of zadruga members.
History of Slovenia - Wikipedia
Socialization Child Rearing and Education. Education is mandatory and free until age fifteen.
After this, students can choose a school that is more specialized if they wish to continue education. Most of the population has some basic education; another 42 percent have secondary schooling past age fifteen at a high school; and approximately 9 percent receive higher, university education.
There is a national, standardized curriculum. Competition for university places is strong. For Slovenes over ten years old, the literacy rate is placed at 99 percent. Around 36 percent of the people receive postsecondary or higher levels of education. There are thirty institutions of higher learning but only two universities, the University of Ljubljana, founded inand the University of Maribor. Admittance to the universities is competitive but there are numerous schools that offer professional degrees.
It is also possible to obtain a two-year "first stage" degree, equivalent to an associate degree, at the universities. A bridge leading to a Baroque-style church in Ljubljana. Slovenia's towns have many well-preserved buildings representing various styles of architecture dating from the s on.
The majority of Slovenes, approximately 71 percent, identify themselves as Roman Catholic; Roman Catholicism has undoubtedly influenced Slovene culture more than any other religious belief. Protestantism gained a strong position during the Reformation in the s but later saw its numbers of practitioners diminish. Eastern Orthodox Christians comprise 2. Most of the Protestants belong to the Lutheran church in Murska Sobota. There was once a small Jewish population in Slovenia but Jews were banished from the area in the fifteenth century.
Although the ruins of a synagogue can still be seen in Maribor, there is no longer an active Jewish temple anywhere in Slovenia today. The rabbi of Zagreb, Croatia, occasionally holds services for the tiny Jewish community that lives in Ljubljana. Rituals and Holy Places.
There are several churches that are considered pilgrimage sites and places of spiritual renewal.
In Brezje, a basilica dedicated to Saint Vid was first established in the s. At the center of this church is a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, with paintings by Leopold Layer. The Gothic church of Ptujska Gora, located on top of a mountain, was erected at the end of the fourteenth century and is famous for its beautiful altar.
Another pilgrimage church is located at Sveta Gora in the foothills of the Alps. The feast days of the Virgin Mary are the central pilgrimage days for all three churches.
There are two monasteries, Sticna Monastery and Pleterje Carthusian Monastery, which are open to visitors who often come not only for spiritual reflection but also to purchase the herbal remedies for which the monks are famous. Medicine and Health Care Health care is provided by the government for all of Slovenia's citizens. Life expectancy has increased and is almost at western European levels: The birthrate is low, under 10 per 1, people, and infant mortality is 5.
The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. There is generally a strong interest in supporting the arts in Slovenia and enthusiastic patronage of cultural events. Under the Yugoslav socialist government, arts and culture received state support. As an independent nation, Slovenia is seeking to maintain the same level of support for the arts, although privatization is changing the way institutions and artists are funded.
Literature has always been enthusiastically supported in Slovenia, and with the country's high literacy rate, this interest continues to grow.