# Planck relationship

### Planck–Einstein relation | Revolvy

The Planck relation (or Planck-Einstein Relation) is just an equation relating the energy of a moving particle to its frequency, via the de Broglie wave. The particle . The Planck–Einstein relation is also referred to as the Einstein relation, Planck's energy–frequency relation, the Planck relation, and the Planck equation. The Planck constant is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, which relates the .. The Planck–Einstein relation connects the particular photon energy E with its associated wave frequency f: E = h f {\displaystyle E=hf} E=hf.

The energy transferred by a wave in a given time is called its intensity.

The light from a theatre spotlight is more intense than the light from a domestic lightbulb; that is to say that the spotlight gives out more energy per unit time and per unit space and hence consumes more electricity than the ordinary bulb, even though the colour of the light might be very similar. Other waves, such as sound or the waves crashing against a seafront, also have their own intensity. However, the energy account of the photoelectric effect didn't seem to agree with the wave description of light.

The "photoelectrons" emitted as a result of the photoelectric effect have a certain kinetic energywhich can be measured. This kinetic energy for each photoelectron is independent of the intensity of the light, [19] but depends linearly on the frequency; [21] and if the frequency is too low corresponding to a photon energy that is less than the work function of the materialno photoelectrons are emitted at all, unless a plurality of photons, whose energetic sum is greater than the energy of the photoelectrons, acts virtually simultaneously multiphoton effect.

And if that is so, then the gauge math should be ditched as a whole. I cannot fathom why physicists are so in love with tools that do not work. It is as if they have a pathological obsession for the patches themselves.

The modern physicist is like a carpenter in love with a golden hammer whose handle is cracked. The gold is too soft to work, and the head flies of with every swing; but the carpenter must use it and nothing else, since he has convinced himself that the shine of it is what generates his business. I have said that Planck's constant is hiding the mass of the photon, but since photons have different energies, we may ask which photon it is hiding.

Since current physics is using h as the quantum of action, they must be using the X-ray as a quantum. This is not logical. It is much more logical to use the charge photon as a quantum. After one year, Weinberg moved to Princeton University where he earned his PhD degree in physics inafter completing his PhD, Weinberg worked as a postdoctoral researcher at Columbia University and University of California, Berkeley and then he was promoted to faculty at Berkeley.

## Planck–Einstein relation

He did research in a variety of topics of physics, such as the high energy behavior of quantum field theory, symmetry breaking, pion scattering, infrared photons. Both textbooks are among the most influential texts in the community in their subjects.

InWeinberg left Berkeley and accepted a position at Harvard. In he was a professor at MIT. One of its fundamental aspects was the prediction of the existence of the Higgs boson, the experimental discovery of weak neutral currents was one verification of the electroweak unification. The paper by Weinberg in which he presented this theory is one of the most cited works ever in high energy physics, in the years afterthe full Standard Model of elementary particle theory was developed through the work of many contributors.

In Weinberg proposed a modification of the Standard Model which did not contain that models fundamental Higgs boson, Weinberg became Higgins Professor of Physics at Harvard University in Insome six years after the discovery of the neutral currents — i.

Josey-Welch Foundation Regents Chair in Science, Steven Weinberg is frequently among the top scientists with highest research effect indices, such as the h-index and the creativity index. His books on science written for the public combine the typical scientific popularization with what is traditionally considered history and philosophy of science, Weinberg was a major participant in what is known as the Science Wars, standing with Paul R.

Although still teaching physics, he has, in recent years, turned his hand to the history of science, efforts that culminated in To Explain the World, The Discovery of Modern Science 8.

Quantum mechanics — Quantum mechanics, including quantum field theory, is a branch of physics which is the fundamental theory of nature at small scales and low energies of atoms and subatomic particles.

Classical physics, the physics existing before quantum mechanics, derives from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid only at large scales, early quantum theory was profoundly reconceived in the mids.

The reconceived theory is formulated in various specially developed mathematical formalisms, in one of them, a mathematical function, the wave function, provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle.

InThomas Young, an English polymath, performed the famous experiment that he later described in a paper titled On the nature of light. This experiment played a role in the general acceptance of the wave theory of light. InMichael Faraday discovered cathode rays, Plancks hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed in discrete quanta precisely matched the observed patterns of black-body radiation. InWilhelm Wien empirically determined a distribution law of black-body radiation, ludwig Boltzmann independently arrived at this result by considerations of Maxwells equations.

However, it was only at high frequencies and underestimated the radiance at low frequencies. Later, Planck corrected this model using Boltzmanns statistical interpretation of thermodynamics and proposed what is now called Plancks law, following Max Plancks solution in to the black-body radiation problem, Albert Einstein offered a quantum-based theory to explain the photoelectric effect. Among the first to study quantum phenomena in nature were Arthur Compton, C.

Raman, robert Andrews Millikan studied the photoelectric effect experimentally, and Albert Einstein developed a theory for it. InPeter Debye extended Niels Bohrs theory of structure, introducing elliptical orbits.

Planck cautiously insisted that this was simply an aspect of the processes of absorption and emission of radiation and had nothing to do with the reality of the radiation itself. In fact, he considered his quantum hypothesis a mathematical trick to get the right rather than a sizable discovery. High frequency waves are damaging to human tissue because they deliver their action packets concentrated in time, the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted.

In the mids, developments in mechanics led to its becoming the standard formulation for atomic physics.

### Photoelectric Effect

In the summer ofBohr and Heisenberg published results that closed the old quantum theory, out of deference to their particle-like behavior in certain processes and measurements, light quanta came to be called photons 9. Cohen-Tannoudji was born in Constantine, French Algeria, to Algerian Jewish parents Abraham Cohen-Tannoudji, when describing his origins Cohen-Tannoudji said, My family, originally from Tangier, settled in Tunisia and then in Algeria in the 16th century after having fled Spain during the Inquisition.

In fact, our name, Cohen-Tannoudji, means simply the Cohen family from Tangiers, the Algerian Jews obtained the French citizenship in after Algeria became a French colony in In he married Jacqueline Veyrat, a school teacher. His studies were interrupted when he was conscripted into the army, in he resumed working toward his doctorate, which he obtained from the University of Paris at the end of He also continued his work on atom-photon interactions, and his research team developed the model of the dressed atom.

He also formed a laboratory there with Alain Aspect, Christophe Salomon and he even took a statistical approach to laser cooling with the use of stable distributions.

His work there led to the Nobel Prize in physics in for the development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light, shared with Steven Chu.

Cohen-Tannoudji was the first physics Nobel prize winner born in an Arab country, - Young Medal and Prize, for distinguished research in the field of optics. Collection of his most important papers, list of Jewish Nobel laureates His research group His lecture notes Autobiography for the Nobel Prize ceremony Photon — A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.

The photon has zero rest mass and is moving at the speed of light. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently best explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave—particle duality, exhibiting properties of both waves and particles.

### Planck constant - Wikipedia

For example, a photon may be refracted by a lens and exhibit wave interference with itself. The quanta in a light wave cannot be spatially localized, some defined physical parameters of a photon are listed. The modern concept of the photon was developed gradually by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical model of light.

The benefit of the model was that it accounted for the frequency dependence of lights energy. The photon model accounted for observations, including the properties of black-body radiation. In that model, light was described by Maxwells equations, in the optical physicist Frithiof Wolfers and the chemist Gilbert N.

Lewis coined the name photon for these particles. Compton won the Nobel Prize in for his studies, most scientists accepted that light quanta have an independent existence. In the Standard Model of particle physics, photons and other particles are described as a necessary consequence of physical laws having a certain symmetry at every point in spacetime.

The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass and it has been applied to photochemistry, high-resolution microscopy, and measurements of molecular distances. Recently, photons have been studied as elements of quantum computers, inthe German physicist Max Planck was studying black-body radiation and suggested that the energy carried by electromagnetic waves could only be released in packets of energy. In his article in Annalen der Physik he called these packets energy elements, the word quanta was used before to mean particles or amounts of different quantities, including electricity.

InAlbert Einstein suggested that waves could only exist as discrete wave-packets.

## Planck constant

Arthur Compton used photon inreferring to Gilbert N. Lewis, the name was suggested initially as a unit related to the illumination of the eye and the resulting sensation of light and was used later in a physiological context. Photoelectric effect — The photoelectric effect or photo ionization is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light is shone onto a material. Electrons emitted in this manner can be called photo electrons, the phenomenon is commonly studied in electronic physics, as well as in fields of chemistry, such as quantum chemistry or electrochemistry.

According to classical theory, this effect can be attributed to the transfer of energy from the light to an electron.