POWER DİSTANCE AND TRUST | Deniz ELBER BORU - misjon.info
How should we conceive of the relationship between modernist projects, women, and war in the Middle East? . These women's efforts for these goals lead us to ask: is it possible to Çağlayan, Handan. Kandiyoti, Deniz. This Pin was discovered by Handan M.. Discover (and save!) StepBrother Cute Couples Goals, Couple Goals, Hot Couples, Boyfriend Goals, Couple Pictures. Help us build our profile of Özcan Deniz and Handan Deniz! Login to add information, pictures and relationships, join in discussions and get credit for your .
Their efforts suggest that new avenues for decolonization and modernity may be created wherein the role of women are radically re-imagined. I believe that the main difficulty facing studies on women and gender in the Middle East revolves around developing a framework without relying on two premises: Let me briefly explain each of these two points. To begin with the first point, we know that feminist theorists with a postcolonial stance have long questioned the monolithic representation of women in the Middle East.
Feminist critiques effectively demonstrate that what we need to challenge is this homogenous and monolithic representation of women in the Middle East. War and Colonialism More importantly, another point I want to emphasize is the role of recent wars in the Middle East and how clearly they show the intersectional relationship between modernity and colonialism.
Wars in the Middle East cannot be understood if we merely base our analysis on the relationship between Islam and modernity. The link between modernity and coloniality is another paradigm to be considered when we discuss war-waging techniques in the Middle East.
The perspective of Santiago Slabodsky becomes very useful here as he challenges Western modernity and its colonial foundations through a Jewish decolonial critique. This ambivalent terrain of war and violence makes it difficult to categorize women either as victims or as agents, insofar as it allows for various alternative, creative, and revolutionary modalities of political conduct for women.
This war has been ongoing in Turkey since the late s, alternating between temporary ceasefires or periods of peace and renewed outbreaks of violence. They are visible members of protests in their characteristic white headscarves. These women pursue an end to the war across various national and international political platforms, whether in the streets or the Parliament.
The Peace Mothers challenge and shift the boundaries of modern politics through their political participation as mothers. In this project, mothers are responsible for raising patriotic, Turkish-speaking citizens. Kurdish mothers, however, often resist acting as breeders of Turkish national culture—for example, by speaking Kurdish and embracing Kurdish culture.
In this context, the anti-war efforts of the Peace Mothers constitute a ground for claiming the right to be and to speak Kurdish. Shervan Derwish and Jack Shahine. Women remove their burqas upon crossing from ISIS-controlled territory into an area controlled by Kurdish fighters. My other example is from just across the border from Turkey: At the time of the outbreak of war in Syria, we witnessed a proliferation of images of Kurdish women in the Western media.
Modernity, Women, and War: Struggles for Peace and Democracy in the Middle East
Cameras frame images of these Kurdish women smiling, carrying arms, casting off burqas, and smoking cigarettes. Even though the Peace Mothers in Turkey and Kurdish women in Syria continue to struggle, the international public has recently, it seems, lost interest in these Kurdish women.
Why has this interest faded so quickly? I believe the answer to this question takes us back to the relationship between coloniality and modernity. Specifically, it returns us to the necessity of a postcolonial feminist perspective on such questions. Questionnaires were distributed by the researchers to each employee in different organizations. Totally subjects participated in the study by answering the complete questionnaire. However, due to invalid answers, total number of the participants are The response rate is approximately Procedure Participation in the study was voluntary.
Participants were approached in person in their offices or the survey were e-mailed to them on a one-on-one basis. Participants were told that their surveys would be collected on a particular future date and that they could complete them at their own leisure before that Convivence in Organizations and Society, Quaderni Di Psicologia del Lavoro, ed.
The questionnaire included a cover letter where the researchers stressed the confidentiality of the participants.
Method of principle component was utilized for this purpose. This value indicates that the items of instrument are homogenous and that estimating the variance of each variable in correlation matrix by all of the other variables in the matrix is significantly high, so these items are appropriate for factor analysis. But, 18 of the items were excluded from the instrument because of their loading falling below. Five organizational trust factors labeled as trust towards immediate supervisor, openness, trust towards colleagues, trust towards organizational policy and managerial supportiveness.
Reliability Analysis was performed for each of the factors of organizational trust.
Five factors of organizational trust were found as satisfactorily reliable. The instrument of organizational trust is highly reliable. The cronbach's alpha coefficients are shown in Table 1. Both instruments are highly reliable.
The cronbach's alpha coefficients are shown in Table 2.
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This analysis yielded how much difference existed between the two. The results of the analysis reveal that there is not much difference between existing and preferred power distance since the differences ranged between 0. This shows that respondents of the survey are working in an organization having power distance that they prefer.
In order to test the hypothesis of "If there is fit between the existing power distance in the organization and preferred power distance of the individual, this would lead to trust" regression analysis was conducted.
Since organizational trust consisted of five factors, five separate regression analysis were carried out by taking the fit between the existing and preferred power distance as independent variable and each factor of organizational trust as dependent variable. After all, sixth regression analysis was conducted taking total organizational trust as dependent variable.
Table 3 presents results of regression analyses where significant contributions of the fit between existing and preferred power distance on five factors of organizational trust and total organizational trust are illustrated. Results of the regression analyses squareAdjusted R distanceIndependent variable: Beta t t Trust towards. Meanwhile, when total organizational trust is taken as dependent variable, contribution of the fit is So, it can be said that as there is more fit between the existing power distance and preferred power distance, the organizational trust gets higher.
To test the second hypothesis of the study, the propensity to trust is taken as a moderating variable between power distance and organizational trust.
For this purpose, fit between existing and preferred power distance and propensity to trust are taken as independent variables while organizational trust is taken as dependent variable. This has been conducted to find out whether propensity to trust strengthens the relationship between organizational trust and the fit. The results of the regression analyses are given in Table 4.
Beta t t Trust towards I. Propensity to trust Independent variable: Fit between the existing and preferred power distance Total organizational M. Moderating Variable Results of the regression analyses show that propensity to trust moderates the relationship between power distance and organizational trust.
This shows that although the fit between the existing and preferred power distance leads to higher organizational trust, propensity to trust strengthens the relationship between the two while the adjusted R squares increase in each relationship as can be seen in Table 4.
These findings support the second hypothesis of the study.
From a relational perspective, high propensity to trust enabled employees to have higher organizational trust. On the other hand as the propensity to trust gets lower and there is misfit of the power distance, the organizational trust gets less.
At the heart of the model is the fit between the existing power distance in the organization and preferred power distance by the employee. It is hypothesized that this fit would lead to organizational trust.
Furthermore, in the second step, propensity to trust is taken as a variable moderating the relationship between power distance fit between existing and preferred and organizational trust. Based on the findings, it could be concluded that as the fit between existing and preferred power distance gets closer, this fit would lead to more trust towards immediate supervisor, colleagues, organizational policy and top management.
Even more important than the perceived power distance by the employees in the organization is the employees' preferred power distance, which influences the organizational trust in two ways. First, preferred power distance reflects an individual member's incentives or motives, an important determinant of that employee's trust towards the organization. Second, the distribution of power and treatment of the employees by the management influences perceptions of the justice and equity within the group which would clearly influence employee's perceptions of the overall climate of trust within the organization and thus organizational trust.
Huff, Couper, Jones ; These findings are in fact consistent with the literature which states that free and open communication, developing and sustaining social harmony, strong leadership, and determining and sharing common goals help promote trust in the organization Huff, Couper, Jones; All these management tools are in fact the characteristics of low power distance.
Those organizations low in power distance are more open, supportive of employees, harmonious and closer to their employees. These facilitating tools or activities might help foster trust within the organization but the most important thing is the management style that the employee opts for. As stated in the literature, belief in the trustworthiness of others, is an individual difference variable that is established in the early life experiences of the trustor.
The individual's propensity to trust is expected to affect trust judgments when the trustor does not have information on the trustee's character. The findings of the study are congruent with the literature since the propensity to trust affected the relationship between organizational trust and power distance fit positively.
However, in the future studies, this relationship can be again tested with very new and long- lasting relationships to see whether the effect of the propensity to trust decreases as the relationship gets older letting people to form their own judgements of the trustees.
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