Greece–Iran relations - Wikipedia
connection between the ancient poleis with modern nations, and between League successfully repelled the Persians from mainland. Greece. of the classical world's relationships with what is now the Middle East, and the So, instead of the study of ancient Greece being predicated on its also described their victory against Persian conquest in the s BC as a. Greek-Iranian relations are foreign relations between Greece and Iran. The two countries have had relations for thousands of years, and share great historical.
There are indications that during the time of the Seleucid Empire expeditions traveled as far as Kashmir in Chinese Turkestan, leading to the first known contacts between China and the West around BC. The theory has been verified archaeologically by the Dunhuang frescoes and the Buddha statues.
Centuries later, in the sixth century AD, two Nestorian monks from Byzantium entered China with the backing of the Emperor Justinian and smuggled fragile silkworm eggs back to Constantinople.
This fascinating acquisition represented a technology transfer which endowed the Eastern Roman Empire with a six-century monopoly on European silk, significantly helping to support its economic vibrancy and political supremacy in Western affairs well into the 12th century. China and Greece were connected by the Silk Road for centuries; however, economic, cultural, educational and research exchanges and tourism have only started to really pick up in the last few years with the development of the bilateral strategic partnership.
Today the China-proposed Belt and Road initiative is providing new opportunities for the two countries. We shall discuss oriental influence on architecture, concentrating on the Odeon of Periclesthe Prytaneumthe Parthenon friezeand the caryatids. After this, we will investigate whether there is similar influence on the management of the Athenian Empire, the Delian League.
Persian Influence on Greek Culture - Livius
But first, we will have a quick look the most important events during the period under consideration. Under his successor Darius I the Great r. Since the days of Cyrus, the Greek towns in western Turkey - usually called the Ionian cities - belonged to the Achaemenid Empire, but in they decided to revolt against those that had been their rulers for almost half a century.
The men who ruled the Ionian towns on behalf of the Persian kings were expelled, and the help of the mainland Greeks was invoked. Although Athens sent a force to help the Ionians, the rebels were brought to heel. According to the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassusthe Ionian revolt led king Darius to punish the Greeks who had supported the rebels. Ingeneral Mardonius conquered Macedoniaand inDatis and Artaphernes added the islands in the Aegean Sea.
At the end of the summer, they led a punitive action against Athens, which ended in disaster in the battle of Marathon.
This battle meant a boost for the Athenian self-confidence, and the city became even stronger after the discovery of silver ore near Laurion.
The new affluence was used to build a large navy. Inthe Persian king Xerxes decided to avenge his father's defeat at Marathon. With a huge army and a large navy he invaded the Greek mainland, and defeated his enemies at Thermopylae.
Thessaly and Boeotia were added to the Persian possessions and Athens was captured. However, the Persian navy was badly damaged when it encountered the Greek navy in the Athenian harbor naval battle of Salamis.
Xerxes was forced to return. With the emphasis on Greece and Rome as "the foundation of western civilisation", it is easy to forget how important the classical world has been in the east, she argues: Indeed, argues Whitmarsh, the Roman empire was "the facilitating grid that produced Islam, in dialogue with Persia".
Woolf talks too of Latin translations of the Qu'ran circulating in 12th-century Europe. In this story of interconnectedness and hybridity, rather than isolation and exceptionalism, there lie enormous intellectual and humanist opportunities, Whitmarsh says.
There are three million Muslims in Britain, many of them learning an ancient language already. There's no reason why, in 50 years' time, undergraduate courses shouldn't be packed with people studying Arabic and Greek culture side by side. Of course, this already exists in a limited way, but it's not a cultural phenomenon at the moment and these worlds mostly exist entirely separately, but it seems to me there's nothing natural in that.
For a start, it means looking at already familiar texts with fresh eyes.
Ancient Greece, the Middle East and an ancient cultural internet | Education | The Guardian
Take, for example, approaches to Herodotusthe "father of history" who provided The Historiesthe great account of the causes and events of the Persian wars of the s BC. A decade or so ago, a postcolonial approach to his work might have looked at the way he wrote about non-Greeks — Egyptians, Persians, Scythians and others — and concluded that his responses to the "other" tell us more about his own projections than what his, say, Persian characters actually thought or did.
Recent scholarship, though, might emphasise Herodotus's own culturally hybrid origins in Asia Minor: It's not inherently implausible that he had a much more informed sense of the world than we have previously given him credit for. It comes down to networks.
If you see Herodotus as occupying a single point from which Greek culture is 'beamed out', that's a less interesting way of thinking of him than as a kind of nodal point between multiple different traditions and cultures. Herodotus's The Histories is a predominantly Greek-voiced text, but that doesn't mean that we should quieten all the other voices that can be detected within it. Iambilichusauthor of the fragmentary work Babylonian Affairs, was writing in his second language, after that of Syriacand he may have known Akkadian too.
Alexander being lowered from a ship in a glass barrel to view the wonders of the sea. The British Library Another culturally hybrid work is the Alexander Romance, a story that recasts the Macedonian conqueror as secretly Egyptian, so the story of his annexation of Egypt becomes one not of conquest but of the return of pharaonic rule.
Whitmarsh says the story reflects a Demotic Egyptian literary forebear. And it tells the story of Alexander the Great in Egyptian-friendly terms.
The interesting thing about this text is that, other than the Bible, it's the biggest seller in antiquity — it goes into 26 languages in antiquity alone, and eventually into [the ancient Iranian language of] PahlaviFrench, Armenian, Bulgarian, Old English.
Whitmarsh's ventures into Semitic languages have enabled him to read works by, for example, Bardaisanthe second-century AD scholar who inhabited the fringes of the Roman empire and whose works fuse Hellenic, Babylonian and Christian influences.
There is, says Graziosi, "an inequality of availability in source texts: The first fully scholarly edition of even a text as central as Gilgamesh is only 10 years old.