Fragile x autism relationship development

Fragile X is a common cause of autism and intellectual disability: UC Davis Health System

fragile x autism relationship development

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is the most common known inherited form of ASD is a developmental behaviorally defined disorder with multiple etiologies. The relationship between FXS and ASD is complex and evolving, influenced in part by. What is known about ASD and its relationship with FXS? Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder primarily characterized by a. Fragile X syndrome is the most common identified cause of inherited intellectual Also, older carriers can develop tremor and balance problems as they age.

fragile x autism relationship development

A variety of problems The genetic defect has widespread consequences in the body, and people with even the trait or carrier status may have a variety of physical, emotional, intellectual and behavioral problems or they may be normal. Early menopause is a common problem for women who are carriers. Also, older carriers can develop tremor and balance problems as they age. All of these problems can vary widely in severity among individuals. Although many children with fragile X syndrome clearly desire socialization, they are often overwhelmed by stimuli, leading to behaviors typical of autism.

fragile x autism relationship development

Intellectual abilities range from a normal IQ with subtle learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability. Female carriers who are intellectually normal are often found to share characteristic disturbances, such as difficulty in learning math, and emotional problems such as extreme shyness, anxiety, obsessive worrying and mood swings. Typical physical characteristics of those with fragile X syndrome include a narrow face, a prominent chin and jaw, and ears that stick out. Boys usually have enlarged testicles during and after puberty.

Children may be larger than their peers in childhood, but because they usually have only a small growth spurt during puberty, adult height is often short although some may be tall.

Unusually flexible joints are also characteristic and can cause orthopedic problems. Seizures are common, but are often outgrown by adulthood. Behavior problems can be severe. Like classically autistic children, they may avoid eye contact, flap their hands, and have late speech development with unusual patterns, such as mumbling or very rapid speech that is difficult to understand.

Many children are impulsive and hyperactive, and some are aggressive. Although there is no cure at this point, new targeted treatments are being studied in clinical trials at the MIND Institute that have the potential to reverse aspects of fragile X syndrome, including the behavioral and cognitive deficits.

fragile x autism relationship development

Treatment options What can be done for individuals with fragile X syndrome? In addition a variety of medications can help control hyperactivity and aggression, as well as moderate anxiety and mood instability.

fragile x autism relationship development

In future studies, we will attempt to identify the factors that determined the high false positivity rate of the ADOS-G. The SB-IV was used for all subjects who were able to establish a true basal [i. The VABS, a semi-structured interview with the parent, provides a general assessment of developmentally adaptive behavior in a variety of areas, and is appropriate for infancy through year-old age groups.

The fragile X syndrome–autism comorbidity: what do we really know?

The VABS yields standard and age-equivalent scores on global function i. Communication skills, Daily Living skills, Socialization skills, and Motor skills.

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome: A Longitudinal Evaluation

Lower scores indicate greater impairment. Standard scores were used for our analyses. The PLS-3 is a standardized measure used to evaluate the semantics and language structure of children from birth through age 6.

fragile x autism relationship development

Like many children with FXS, a majority of our sample demonstrated limited verbalization. Therefore, since the PLS-3 is designed primarily for pre-verbal children and both the Auditory Comprehension and Expressive Communication subscales require limited verbalization, the assessment was well suited for our sample. The Auditory Comprehension and Expressive Communication subscales yield both raw and standardized scores.

Understanding Fragile X

The CELF-3 is a similar measure of language skills that can be applied to older populations, aged 6 to 21 years, and includes Receptive Language and Expressive Language subscales. Either the 2—3 years version [ Achenbach, ] or the 4—18 years version [ Achenbach, ] was used. There are six subscales in the 2—3 years version and eight subscales in the 4—18 years version.

The fragile X syndrome–autism comorbidity: what do we really know?

These subscales are primarily grouped into Internalizing or Externalizing domains. Separate Sleep and Somatic problems subscales and Social, Thought, and Attention problems subscales are also part of the 2—3 years and 4—18 years versions, respectively.

T scores are generated for each individual syndrome subscale and for both the Internalizing and Externalizing behavior domain composites. A total T score, combining all subscales, is also calculated. The ABC-C is another parent report measure, which assesses the prevalence of inappropriate and maladaptive behaviors in individuals between 3 and 18 years with developmental disabilities. It is composed of five subscales: