Timeline: British-Iranian relations | World news | The Guardian
In charting the evolution of Britain's diplomatic relationship with Iran during this period, a number of factors are considered, including historical experience. Apr 20, Since the revolution, British-Iranian relations have been volatile. When Islamic Republic Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini issued a. The British Embassy represents the UK in Iran. Our job is to support the relationship between the UK and Iran by working closely with the Iranian authorities on.
The effects of these modernizations proved to be highly successful, as from then on the Safavids proved to be an equal force against their arch rival, immediately crushing them in the first war to come Ottoman-Safavid War and all other Safavid wars to come.
Many more events followed, including the debut of the British East India Company into Persia, and the establishment of trade routes for silk though Jask in the Strait of Hormuz in It was from here where the likes of Sir John Malcolm later gained influence into the Qajarid throne. Anglo-Persian relations picked up momentum as a weakened Safavid empire, after the short-lived revival by the genius Nader Shaheventually gave way to the Qajarid dynasty, which was quickly absorbed into domestic turmoil and rivalry, while competing colonial powers rapidly sought a stable foothold in the region.
While the Portuguese, British, and Dutch, competed for the south and southeast of Persia in the Persian GulfImperial Russia was largely left unchallenged in the north as it plunged southward to establish dominance in Persia's northern territories. Plagued with internal politics and incompetence, the Qajarid government found itself fast after their ascendancy incapable of rising to the numerous complex foreign political challenges at the doorsteps of Persia.
Caption from a English satirical magazine reads: Allen Lindsay was even appointed as a general in Abbas Mirza 's army. A weakened and bankrupted royal court under Fath Ali Shah was forced to sign the Treaty of Gulistan infollowed by the Treaty of Turkmenchay after efforts by Abbas Mirza failed to secure Persia's northern front against Imperial Russia.
Sir Gore Ouseley was the younger brother of the British orientalist William Ouseleywho served as secretary to the British ambassador in Persia. In fact, Iran's current southern and eastern boundaries were determined by none other than the British during the Anglo-Persian War to Similarly, the "Tobacco fatwa", decreed by Grand Ayatollah Mirza Hassan Shirazi was an incident which raised popular resentment against the British presence in Persia in lieu of a diplomatically decapitated and apathetic Qajar throne.
Concessions such as this and the year contract of Persian railways to be operated by British businessmen such as Baron de Reuter became increasingly visible.
Iran–United Kingdom relations - Wikipedia
The visibility became particularly pronounced after the discovery of oil in Masjed Soleiman in and the establishment of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and the " D'Arcy Concession". By the end of the 19th century, Britain's dominance became so pronounced that KhuzestanBushehrand a host of other cities in southern Persia were occupied by Great Britainand the central government in Tehran was left with no power to even select its own ministers without the approval of the Anglo-Russian consulates.
Morgan Shusterfor example, had to resign under tremendous British and Russian pressure on the royal court.
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Shuster's book The Strangling of Persia is a recount of the details of these events, a harsh criticism of Britain and Imperial Russia. Pahlavi era[ edit ] Of the public outcry against the inability of the Persian throne to maintain its political and economic independence from Great Britain and Imperial Russia in the face of events such as the Anglo-Russian Convention of and "the treaty", one result was the Persian Constitutional Revolutionwhich eventually resulted in the fall of the Qajar dynasty.
The popular view that the British were involved in the coup was noted as early as March by the American embassy and relayed to the Iran desk at the Foreign Office  A British Embassy report from concedes that the British put Reza Shah "on the throne".
A novel chapter in Anglo-Iranian relations had begun when Iran canceled its capitulation agreements with foreign powers in Iran's success in revoking the capitulation treaties, and the failure of the Anglo-Iranian Agreement of earlier, led to intense diplomatic efforts by the British government to regularize relations between the two countries on a treaty basis. On the Iranian side negotiations on the widest range of issues were conducted by Abdolhossein Teymourtashthe Minister of Court from toand Iran's nominal Minister of Foreign Affairs during the period.
On the economic front, on the other hand, Iran's pressures to rescind the monopoly rights of the British-owned Imperial Bank of Persia to issue banknotes in Iran, the Iranian Trade Monopoly Law ofand prohibitions whereby the British Government and Anglo-Persian Oil Company "APOC" were no longer permitted to enter into direct agreements with their client tribes, as had been the case in the past, did little to satisfy British expectations.
The cumulative impact of these demands on the British Government was well expressed by Sir Robert Clive, Britain's Minister to Tehran, who in noted in a report to the Foreign Office "There are indications, indeed that their present policy is to see how far they can push us in the way of concessions, and I feel we shall never re-establish our waning prestige or even be able to treat the Persian government on equal terms, until we are in a position to call a halt".
Resolution of all outstanding differences eluded a speedy resolution, however, given the reality that on the British side progress proved tedious due to the need to consult many government departments with differing interests and jurisdictions. The most intractable challenge, however, proved to be Iran's assiduous efforts to revise the terms whereby the APOC retained near monopoly control over the oil industry in Iran as a result of the concession granted to William Knox D'Arcy in by the Qajar King of the period.
Complicating matters further, and ensuring that such demands would in due course set Iran on a collision course with the British Government was the reality that pursuant to a Act of the British Parliament, an initiative championed by Winston Churchill in his capacity as First Lord of the Admiraltyled the British Government to be granted a majority fifty-three percent ownership of the shares of APOC.
The decision was adopted during World War I to ensure the British Government would gain a critical foothold in Iranian affairs so as to protect the flow of oil Iran from Iran due to its critical importance to the operation of the Royal Navy during the war effort. By the s APOC's extensive installations and pipelines in Khuzestan and its refinery in Abadan meant that the company's operations in Iran had led to the creation of the greatest industrial complex in the Middle East.
The attempt to revise the terms of the oil concession on a more favorable basis for Iran led to protracted negotiations that took place in Tehran, Lausanne, London and Paris between Teymourtash and the Chairman of APOC, Sir John Cadmanspanning the years from to The overarching argument for revisiting the terms of the D'Arcy Agreement on the Iranian side was that its national wealth was being squandered by a concession that was granted in by a previous non-constitutional government forced to agree to inequitable terms under duress.
The Monarch attended a meeting of the Council of Ministers in Novemberand after publicly rebuking Teymourtash for his failure to secure an agreement, dictated a letter to cabinet canceling the D'Arcy Agreement.UK: VISIT BY IRANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER KHARRAZI
Rejecting the cancellation, the British government espoused the claim on behalf of APOC and brought the dispute before the Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hagueasserting that it regarded itself "as entitled to take all such measures as the situation may demand for the Company's protection.
Iranians nationalized the oil under the leadership of democratically elected prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. Until the cry "There is no God but God" resounds over the whole world, there will be struggle. The gathering of militants, primarily Shi'a but including some Sunnis"with various religious and revolutionary credentials," was hosted by the Association of Militant Clerics and the Pasdaran Islamic Revolutionary Guards.
Here the groundwork for the gathering was prepared: These groups came under the umbrella of the "Council for the Islamic Revolution", which was supervised by Ayatollah Hussein Ali Montazerithe designated heir of Ayatollah Khomeini.
Most of the council's members were clerics, but they also reportedly included advisors from the Syrian and Libyan intelligence agencies.
These attempts to spread its Islamic revolution strained the country's relations with many of its Arab neighbours, and the extrajudicial execution of Iranian dissidents in Europe unnerved European nations, particularly France and Germany. Training volunteers[ edit ] Arab and other Muslim volunteers who came to Iran were trained in camps run by the Revolutionary Guards.
There were three primary bases in Tehran, and others in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Qom, Shiraz, and Mashad, and a further facility, converted innear the southern naval base at Bushire.
Nations with strong fundamentalist movements, such as Egypt and Algeriaalso began to mistrust Iran.
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With the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, Iran was thought to be supporting the creation of the Hizballah organization. Furthermore, Iran went on to oppose the Arab—Israeli peace process, because it saw Israel as an illegal country. Iran—Iraq relations Relations with Iraq had never been good historically; however, they took a turn for the worse inwhen Iraq invaded Iran.
The stated reason for Iraq's invasion was the contested sovereignty over the Shatt al-Arab waterway Arvand Rud in Persian. Other reasons, unstated, were probably more significant: Iran and Iraq had a history of interference in each other's affairs by supporting separatist movements, and although this interference had ceased since the Algiers Agreementafter the Revolution Iran resumed support for Kurdish guerrillas in Iraq.
Iran demanded the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Iranian territory and the return to the status quo ante for the Shatt al-Arab, as established under the Algiers Agreement. This period saw Iran become even more isolated, with virtually no allies. Neither nation had made any real gains in the war, which left one million dead and had a dramatic effect on the country's foreign policy.
From this point on, the Islamic Republic recognized that it had no choice but to moderate its radical approach and rationalize its objectives.