Islamic attitudes towards science - Wikipedia
Most Contributing Authors in Islam And Science Western Thinkers' View on Early Muslim Scientists Principle for Success: Synchronize with the Will o. Wasn't there a long and protracted war between science and Christianity? Did the of the close relationship between Islam and science in early Muslim history. over the nature and claims of science and in its sub-debates over the relationship between science and Islam. It was the Scientific Revolution in the Christian.
This is a topic which is well known today. But if we consider the ideas prevalent at that time, they appear to be based more on myth and philosophical speculation than on observed fact, even though useful practical knowledge on soil irrigation was current at that period.
Let us examine, for example, the following verse in chapter az-Zumar: It was not until the sixteenth century, with Bernard Palissy, that we gained the first coherent description of the water cycle.
Islam and science : Plain islam
Prior to this, people believed that the waters of the oceans, under the effect of winds, were thrust towards the interior of the continents. In the seventeenth century, great thinkers such as Descartes still believed in this myth. Today, we know that it is the infiltration of rain water into the ground that is responsible for this. Mountains In geology, modern science has recently discovered the phenomenon of folding which formed the mountain ranges.
It has also been discovered that the stability of mountains is linked to the phenomenon of folding. Here, as in the case of all the other topics presented, the objective observer cannot fail to notice the absence of any contradiction to modern knowledge. We should really devote much more time to this subject, but, due to the limited scope of this presentation, I can only give a few examples.
It is for this reason that scientists find some of their interpretations unacceptable. There are also other verses whose obvious meanings are easily understood, but which conceal scientific meanings which are startling, to say the least.
- Islam and Science
- The Quran and Modern Science
This is the case of a verse in chapter al-Ambiyaa, a part of which has already been quoted: Will they still not believe? Botany Progress in botany at the time of Muhammad S was not advanced enough in any country for scientists to know that plants have both male and female parts. Nevertheless, we may read the following in the chapter Taa Haa: To understand this verse, it must first be known that chemical reactions occur between food and enzymes in the mouth, the stomach and the intestines releasing nutrients in molecular form which are then absorbed into the circulatory system through countless microscopic projections of the intestinal wall called villi.
Blood in the circulatory system then transports the nutrients to all the organs of the body, among which are the milk-producing mammary glands. Today it is not difficult to see why! This verse is taken from the chapter an-Nahl: I give you drink from their insides, coming from a conjunction between the digested contents of the intestines and the blood, milk pure and pleasant for those who drink it. The initial event which sets the whole process in motion is the conjunction of the contents of the intestine and blood at the level of the intestinal wall itself.
This very precise concept is the result of the discoveries made in the chemistry and physiology of the digestive system over one thousand years after the time of Prophet Muhammad S. It was impossible for a human being living in the early seventh century to have accurately expressed such ideas. There is nothing to indicate that people in the Middle-East and Arabia knew anything more about this subject than people living in Europe or anywhere else.
Your books on sex-education are a bit late on the scene! Fertilization Let us now isolate, from all these verses, precise ideas concerning the complexity of the semen and the fact that an infinitely small quantity is required to ensure fertilization. The verse correctly implies that fertilization is performed by only a very small volume of liquid.
On the other hand, mingled fluids amshaaj has been understood by early commentators to refer to the mixture of male and female discharges. Modern authors have corrected this view and note that the sperm is made up of various components. This is the meaning of the following verse in chapter as-Sajdah: In whatever way it is translated, it refers to part of a whole. Under normal conditions, only one single cell, spermatozoon, out of over 50 million ejaculated by a man during sexual intercourse will actually penetrate the ovule.
Islamic attitudes towards science
Implantation Once the egg has been fertilized in the fallopian tube, it descends to lodge itself inside the uterus. Implantation is a result of the development of villosities, which, like roots in the soil, draw nourishment from the wall of the uterus and make the egg literally cling to the womb. It is a derivative meaning which is not as appropriate in this context.
Embryo The evolution of the embryo inside the maternal uterus is only briefly described, but the description is accurate, because the simple words referring to it correspond exactly to fundamental stages in its growth.
It is known that the bones develop inside this mass and that they are then covered with muscle. The embryo passes through a stage where some parts are in proportion and others out of proportion with what is later to become the individual. This is the obvious meaning of a verse in the chapter al-Hajj, which reads as follows: Next, we have a reference to the appearance of the senses and internal organs in the chapter as-Sajdah: Throughout the Middle Ages there were a variety of beliefs about human development based on myths and speculations which continued for several centuries after the period.
At that time, when science had benefited greatly from the invention of the microscope, people were still arguing about the respective roles of the egg and spermatozoon. Buffon, the great naturalist, was one of those in favor of the egg theory.
Creation We have already come across some of the contradictions between scripture and science regarding the creation of the universe. The narration seems to have been conceived as the theme of a sermon designed to exhort people to observe the Sabbath. The narration was constructed with a definite end in view, and as Father de Vaux a former head of the Biblical School of Jerusalem has noted, this end was essentially legalist in character. They are both taken from Genesis, the first book of the Pentateuch or Torah.
Moses is supposed to have been its author, but the text we have today has undergone many changes.
Islam and Science
The sacerdotal narration of Genesis is famous for its whimsical genealogies, that go back to Adam, and which nobody takes very seriously. March At the beginning of the nineteenth century, modern science arrived in the Muslim world but it was not the science itself that affected Muslim scholars.
Rather, it "was the transfer of various philosophical currents entangled with science that had a profound effect on the minds of Muslim scientists and intellectuals. Schools like Positivism and Darwinism penetrated the Muslim world and dominated its academic circles and had a noticeable impact on some Islamic theological doctrines.
Some rejected modern science as corrupt foreign thought, considering it incompatible with Islamic teachings, and in their view, the only remedy for the stagnancy of Islamic societies would be the strict following of Islamic teachings.
In their view, the only remedy for the stagnation of Muslim societies would be the mastery of modern science and the replacement of the religious worldview by the scientific worldview. The majority of faithful Muslim scientists tried to adapt Islam to the findings of modern science; they can be categorized in the following subgroups: Their motivation was to encourage Muslim societies to acquire modern knowledge and to safeguard their societies from the criticism of Orientalists and Muslim intellectuals.
In their view, one must try to construct a new theology that can establish a viable relation between Islam and modern science.
The Indian scholar, Sayyid Ahmad Khan, sought a theology of nature through which one could re-interpret the basic principles of Islam in the light of modern science. The revelation had only the privilege of prophecy. Finally, some Muslim philosophers separated the findings of modern science from its philosophical attachments.
Islam and science
Thus, while they praised the attempts of Western scientists for the discovery of the secrets of nature, they warned against various empiricist and materialistic interpretations of scientific findings. Scientific knowledge can reveal certain aspects of the physical world, but it should not be identified with the alpha and omega of knowledge. Rather, it has to be integrated into a metaphysical framework—consistent with the Muslim worldview—in which higher levels of knowledge are recognized and the role of science in bringing us closer to God is fulfilled.
These ritual considerations include a lunar calendar, definition of prayer times based on the position of the sun, and a direction of prayer set at a specific location. Scientific methods have also been applied to Islamic laws governing the distribution of inheritances and to Islamic decorative arts. Some of these problems were tackled by both medieval scientists of the Islamic world and scholars of Islamic law. Though these two groups generally used different methods, there is little evidence of serious controversy between them on these subjects, with the exception of the criticism leveled by religious scholars at the methods of astronomy due to its association with astrology.
According to some MUSTAFA AKYOLthe relative lack of Muslim Nobel laureates in sciences per capita can be attributed to more insular interpretations of the religion than in the golden age of Islamic discovery and development, when society was more open to foreign ideas.
As Creator, he is other than creation. He is not nature; he is above and beyond his creation transcendent. He is eternal and self-existent. He created everything and set the universe in order.
When the virgin Mary found herself with child, she inquired as to how it could be so. How shall I have a son when no man has touched me? God createth what He willeth: Though Christians and Muslims share some common convictions regarding the existence of God and the creation of the world, the Islamic view of creation differs from biblical revelation.
In some passages creation is said to have taken six days: Your Guardian-Lord is God, Who created the heavens and the earth is six Days, and is firmly established on the Throne It is that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days?