The Art of Cuban Culture | International Expeditions
Explore Cuba: Learn more about Cuban art and culture. that he would finally restore full U.S. diplomatic relations with Cuba, most Americans Now that restrictions on travel to Cuba are being lessened, it's a great time to. Art · Censorship · Cinema · Cuisine · Culture · Demographics · Education · Health · Holidays · Human Rights; Literature; Music · Politics · Propaganda · Religion · Tourism · v · t · e. Cuban literature is the literature written in Cuba or outside the island by Cubans in Spanish Spanish language literature began in the Cuban territory with the Spanish. culture of Cuba. Cuba. Political map: boundaries, cities. Includes locator. In Cuba : Literature. A recognizably Cuban literature first began to emerge after the end.
There were many young authors who participated in what amounted to a revolution of Cuban literature that distanced itself from political themes and created a clearer and more universal lyric. The majority of the most active authors were born between andand as a general rule they adopted the conversational tone and usually distanced themselves from the themes of aggressive, political militancy.
Furthermore, they treated the island home with the nostalgia so typical of Cuban emigration poetry from Heredia to the present day. Any political components were very discreet. As a rule, they did not write a poetry of militancy against the Revolution like that which can be found in the lyrical work of Reinaldo Arenas, for example.
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Also, varieties of form, style and content were prominent, mostly because the territorial centers of these poets were more dispersed than those of the island, the central cities of immigrant Cubans being Miami, New York, Mexico City and Madrid.
Narrative literature[ edit ] By far the highest figure of Cuban narrative literature in the 20th century was Alejo Carpentier — Novelist, essayist and musicologist, he greatly influenced the development of Latin American literature, particularly by his style of writing, which incorporates several dimensions of imagination—dreams, myths, magic and religion—in his concept of reality.
However, during the first 30 years of the 20th century, the production of novels was scarce. Between anda significant burst of literature took place inside and outside of Cuba with works such as Tres tristes tigres by Guillermo Cabrera Infante, El mundo alucinante by Reinaldo Arenas and De donde son los cantantes by Severo Sarduy. The s was a period of digression in the overall development of the Cuban novel.
However, the novel Antes que anochezca by Reinaldo Arenas, especially its film adaptation, had an international impact.
Between andanother change was effected that again brought the Cuban novel to national and international interest. Short stories[ edit ] The first book of integral short stories by a Cuban author was Lecturas de Pascuas by Esteban Borrero, published in For the next forty years, the genre began a slow rise on the island, and few are the authors who belonged to it: The National Congress of Education and Culture, held from April 23 to April 30 inset out to establish a policy to abolish the inquisitive and questioning role of literature, which bore negative consequences for the short story writing of those times.
Cuban short story writing continued to increase in the s.
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Some of the members of this generation had already been published toward the end of the s. However, these writers only became established in the s, a decade that gave rise to many authors: Essays[ edit ] Cuba has an important tradition of essay writing that began in the first half of the 19th century and includes many world-famous authors. During the second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st, the development of essay writing accelerated, with dozens of writers cultivating the genre: Post-Revolution[ edit ] After the Cuban Revolution ofwriters of all backgrounds were challenged by the material constraints that immediately took place.
Supplies such paper and ink were difficult to come by, and the lack of materials was compounded by the lack of publishing and binding houses. Though such companies had existed within the private sector, at the time of the Revolution, these businesses were in the process of being nationalized by the new Cuban government.
Despite these challenges, the establishment of free education allowed for a drastically higher literacy rate, so writers had wider and more diverse audiences than ever before. Such developments are thought to contribute to the "boom" in women's writing that occurred in the s, especially among younger women writers.
Their writing is diverse, and no one perspective, technique, or medium can be said to be characteristic of women's literature in Cuba.
Poetry is by far the most widely used genre for Cuban women writers, followed by the short story, although they work within genres such as testimonial literature, autobiography, essay, and the novel as well.
They do, however, hold in common several themes especially prevalent in their works. From two-fifths to half of Cubans have access to dollars. This is a varied group indeed, comprising recipients of foreign remittances from their families, workers in service industries who receive gratuities, tourist enterprises catering to foreigners, members of the armed services, workers in some industries who are paid partly in dollars, and even those working in the sex trade.
There is also a group, locally called mayimbes bosseswho appear to enjoy a good life without the benefit of obvious employment. Dollars also enable ordinary Cubans to amelioratehowever slightly, the monotonous routine of their lives. They can supplement the inadequate supplies of their ration books—not only in quality but also in quantity and variety—from purchases in the mercados agropecuarios general food markets and creative private sources including the black market.
The typical cuisine makes wide use of pork, fowl, and rice—cooked with a scarcity of spices—and tropical fruits. When African slaves first arrived in Cuba during the 16th century, they were taught a few simple prayers and were baptised by the Spanish.
During colonial times and into the early Republic, many Cubans suffered from intense ethnocentrism and confused Afro-Cuban religion with black magic and witchcraft.
The Art of Cuban Culture
Haiti was a French colony - Saint-Domingue - from the early 17th century, and the final years of the — Haitian Revolution brought a wave of French settlers fleeing with their Haitian slaves to Cuba. Some of the place names are Indian, such as Guanabacoa and Guanajay.
English is often used in big cities. Etiquette[ edit ] When speaking to the elderly, or to strangers, Cubans speak more formally as a sign of respect. They shake hands upon greeting someone and farewelling them.
Men often exchange friendly hugs abrazos and it is also common for both men and women to greet friends and family with a hug and a kiss on the cheek. Cuban family life[ edit ] The Revolution of sparked the turning point in Cuban family life by promoting women's equality.
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Cuban revolutionary thought promoted class equality rather than gender equality, but women still benefited indirectly from social changes. Because Cubans, like many Latin Americans, tend to live together as a nuclear family, grandparents often provide childcare for women in the household who work outside the home, or attend school.
The Maternity Law actually 'created' the working woman in Cuba [state when this law was passed, and what it says]. However, there were still 'personal' obligations that women had to assume with marriage, such as 'maternal rights,' which were a norm in Cuban traditional society. Despite progressive measures imposed by law, some traditions remained intact, and new norms for the Cuban family took time to develop.
Marriage[ edit ] Marriage rates in Cuba have traditionally been significantly stagnant.
In the s and the early s marriage rates were relatively high, with and marriages per every inhabitants respectively. Women [university] educated tended to get married at an older age, and have fewer children; compared to "publicly schooled" educated women. On average in the s most people got married around 19 to 20 years old, still, with a more developed educational system women are becoming more independent, studying, and working better jobs, that since " most people are now getting married around the ages of When the revolution of occurred, divorce rates were starting to be observed for the first time.
Comparing this information throughout different time periods in Cuban life, in " it was 0. Also, when the economy started picking up and inthe divorce rate returned to the rate in " of 0.