The Relationship between Scholarships and Success of Students in college..
Request PDF on ResearchGate | The impact of scholarships on students' effect of receiving a need-based grant on the performance of university students in Italy. Interventions in higher education and their effect on student success: a meta- In this paper we investigate the relationship between liquidity constraints and. sources of aid: 1) grants, 2) scholarships, 3) loans, and 4) students receiving no aid. Financial Aid and Academic Success in Higher Education Scholarships that assist or cover costs of pursuing a higher education provide a number of benefits for recipients.
Ganem and Michelle Manasse. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The majority of studies investigating financial predictors of student success in higher education focus on liberal art schools and have investigated a limited number of conditioning variables in analyses. This study adds to the literature by exploring financial predictors of student success through a unique sample of students from an art and design college and by considering a number of variable interactions.
Institutional scholarships emerged as the strongest predictor of student persistence, progression, and timely graduation in all models explored. Standardized test scores interacted with scholarship dollars in unique ways. Findings suggest that high test scorers may be at risk in an art and design institution and that scholarship dollars may mitigate this risk.
The administration of financial aid to college students has been shown to facilitate such student success [ 1 — 12 ].Creating Scholarships for Student Success
Financial aid for higher education consists of both need- and merit-based aid, in such forms as grants, loans, tuition remission, and private or institutional scholarships.
Therefore, pecuniary variables, particularly institutionally funded scholarships, may play an increasingly large role in attempts to support student success in higher education. Although a clear effect of financial aid has been established within the higher education literature [ 14 ], this effect has varied in direction and intensity [ 15 — 17 ], as well as across types of aid [ 1018 ] and characteristics of students [ 418 — 20 ].
Previous studies have therefore revealed a complex relationship between financial aid and student success, which warrants further investigation. The current study will add to this literature by examining the effect of merit-based institutional scholarships on persistence, progression, and timely graduation among a previously understudied population of art and design college students.
Although high school GPA and standardized test scores do influence persistence, progression, and graduation [ 21 — 23 ], higher education research has identified a broad range of predictors for student success. Relevant variables include internal characteristics of the student, such as sex, race, academic goals, and academic skills, as well as external characteristics, such as institutional selectivity and various forms of financial support see [ 10142425 ].
This model focuses on the importance of student perceptions and self-reports. The second education model focuses on behavioral variables.
Regarding motivational constructs, Robbins et al. Among other variables that achieve these outcomes, Robbins et al. Financial aid could have a direct effect on academic motivation if a student feels success is necessary to maintain a scholarship in the short term or allow the repayment of loans in the longer term. In addition, the receipt of financial aid may create a kind of loyalty effect; students who choose to attend a college based on student aid have a higher likelihood of persistence, even when controlling for direct effects of aid [ 20 ].
The Relationship between Scholarships and Success of Students in college.
As expected, financial support played a statistically significant role in predicting college persistence in Robbins et al. Financial aid was correlated with retention across the six studies used and 7, students evaluated, and, though academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation were the strongest predictors of cumulative college grade point average, financial aid sustained a moderate positive effect.
Multiple studies provide additional empirical evidence documenting the connection between financial aid and student success [ 13 — 91112 ]. Yet, there is a great deal of inconsistency across research on financial aid and student outcomes [ 1017 ].
Although much research suggests that financial aid has significant positive effects on persistence, other studies have shown no effect [ 31 ] or negative effects of financial aid [ 1516 ]. In two studies specifically focused on academic outcomes within elite universities, Alon [ 1819 ] argues that such inconsistencies arise because studies tend to conflate the variable of need-based aid eligibility with aid quantity.
Alon [ 18 ] emphasizes the necessity of considering socioeconomic background in analysis by explaining: On the other hand, amounts of financial aid are expected to increase persistence and graduation rates. When Alon [ 1819 ] separated the effects of these two factors, financial support positively influenced graduation.
Grants and scholarships also had more pronounced effects in his study when compared to loans [ 18 ]. For example, Hochstein and Butler [ 37 ] found that loans were negatively associated with college persistence, while grants had a positive effect on retention.
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This suggests that monies that do not need to be repaid may be particularly powerful in predicting student success. Yet the relationship between financial aid and student success has been shown to vary across particular subsets of the student population.
In a study of private institutionsGansemer-Topf and Schuh [ 34 ] found that institutional scholarships positively influenced retention and graduation rates only for schools with low admissions selectivity.
Research further suggests that minority students may be not only disproportionately likely to drop out due to loan repayment pressures but also disproportionately likely to respond positively to grant dollars see [ 183839 ]. The current study will address the following research questions: Are there certain types of students who benefit or benefit more from such scholarships?
This study will build on the ongoing conversation in several ways. This research will further add to the literature by examining the effect of institutionally funded aid on a sample of students from a private art and design college, a type of institution previously underrepresented within the literature. The sample consisted of a cohort of students entering as first-time freshmen during the fall quarters of the and academic years.
This sample was selected for proper construction of the dependent variable capturing whether students had successfully graduated within six years of their matriculation it is possible that this sample is unique from samples taken from other time periods due to the fact that these students were in their freshmen and sophomore years of college during the September 11, attack on the World Trade Center.
Graduate students and transfer students were not included. This was done so that estimated family contribution EFC could be controlled in analyses The exclusion of such students from the sample created a conservative exploration of questions raised. Independent Variable The major independent variable in this study was institutional scholarships, defined as monies given to a student by the institution without the expectation of repayment.
This was measured by total dollar amount of aid allotted to a student through institutional scholarships. Most students received relatively small amounts of aid, which caused this variable to be right skewed. The natural log of aid was therefore taken to avoid unreliable results. Dependent Variables Persistence, progression, and graduation were the dependent variables investigated. Persistence was measured by the total number of hours that a student attempted range: Progression was measured by the total number of credit hours successfully earned by a student range: Control Variables Given past research indicating the importance of other factors in student success, a number of control variables were taken into consideration.
The comparison category included minority students and those who did not mark their ethnicity on the FAFSA application. Such students may therefore be more likely to persist, progress, and graduate.
Dummy variables capturing SATs or ACT converted scores belowbetween andandand and higher were therefore compared to the left out category of — This was done to determine whether the emphasis placed on very HS GPAs for admission to the college was necessary, given the institutional focus on art and design.
The Relationship between Scholarships and Student Success: An Art and Design Case Study
All analyses were conducted without the inclusion of cumulative college grade point average CC GPA as a control variable; this was done for multiple reasons. First, policy states that maintenance of a certain CC GPA is required for continued enrollment, accrual of hours, and graduation.
This presented causal ordering issues in all regressions planned. Second, because CC GPA was tied to many of the institutional scholarships offered, it presented a moderate degree of multicollinearity. Third, CC GPA is not known at the time of admission, the point at which most institutional scholarships are given. This variable therefore cannot be used by administrators to determine who is most likely to be at risk upon admission to the college and upon the distribution of scholarship dollars.
CC GPA is not used as a dependent variable in this study because it is possible that hours attempted, hours earned, and graduation within six years of entry are variables more generalizable across college campuses when compared to CC GPA. Results and Discussion 4. Primary Analysis To investigate the first research question regarding the impact of institutional scholarship dollars on persistence, progression, and graduation, independent and control variables were regressed onto the number of hours attempted and earned in an OLS regression For a complete table of descriptive statistics, please see Table 3.
Variable correlations are available upon request. Variables were then placed in a logistic regression onto a dichotomous variable grouping those students that graduated within six years of entry versus those that did not. Table 1 indicates consistent results across models. Regarding the OLS regression in Models 1 and 2, the logged total dollar amount of institutional scholarship significantly predicted both hours attempted and hours earned M1: Standardized coefficients for Models 1 and 2 reveal that the impact of institutional aid was the strongest across all other independent variables M1: The most obvious benefit of scholarships is that they make college more affordable.
From this larger, overarching benefit comes many more benefits. As college costs continue to rise, a major deterrent to pursuing, and finishing, a college degree is affordability. Scholarships can give students the financial bump needed to take a leap and enroll in a degree, as well as a boost to morale and a student's confidence in their ability to work toward a better future.
Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation MDRC is a non-partisan, non-profit dedicated to providing education and research that informs sound, evidence based policies and programs geared toward improving the lives of underserved and underprivileged populations.
Their publication " Piecing Together the College Affordability Puzzle " notes that given the drastic increase in costs for attending college, it's not surprising that students from low-income backgrounds have lower enrollment and completion rates.
Relative to the degree to which this income covers the basic cost of living, college affordability, or lack thereof, becomes a huge factor in low-income students not being able to finish their degrees. MDRC references a number of studies that showed correlations of higher dropout rates among students with unmet need versus students with no unmet need.
Scholarships also contribute to student success by allowing for more financial flexibility in terms of the need for a student to hold a job throughout college. This necessity can impede a student's success because jobs require time and energy spent away from schoolwork and other academic responsibilities.
In addition, the extra time spent working a part-time job reduces time that could be spent taking advantage of the vast amount of experiential learning opportunities that colleges and universities offer, such as RSO registered student organization involvement, volunteering, internships and student-leadership positions.
Merit-based scholarships often require that students enroll in a certain number of hours and maintain certain grade-point averages.