Proceedings of the 43rd Meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group detected using strain gauges, while varying the applied load to the elastic limit. The figures show the relation between tangential stress, measured by strain. The intersection of learning and memory is well described by the Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) which builds upon an established model of. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if there is an association between meeting patients' information needs and their overall.
It is also important to note that productivity, although a major concern, is not the only indicator of individual or organizational performance.
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Productivity interacts with other aspects of employee performance, financial controls, innovation, and competitive effectiveness—any one of which can lead to organizational failure. In Chapter 6 Sink and Smith identify seven related but separable performance criteria for an organizational system: Other authors, such as Pritchard Chapter 7 and Campbell Chapter 8have slightly different ways of relating or combining these performance dimensions.
For the purposes of this chapter, my definition of productivity includes effectiveness producing the right products or servicesefficiency prudent utilization of resourcesand quality meeting technical and customer specifications.
My purpose in this chapter is to assimilate knowledge about the measurement and management of individual productivity in order to provide a link in the chain of understanding regarding how individual productivity contributes to group productivity, which in turn contributes to organizational productivity. My intent is to aggregate existing knowledge and propose some theoretical foundations in order to reveal areas in which theory development and empirical research are needed.
Throughout, I make an effort to bridge the gap between the concerns of researchers and the needs of practitioners in industry. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The measurement system provides an implicit definition of productivity for the operation. It communicates to the worker, the supervisor, and others the common expectation from the task. The productivity measurement provides specific direction and guides the worker toward productive activities.
Monitor performance and provide feedback: The measurement system provides a means to check progress toward an objective. In addition, it can be a major part of the employee's performance evaluation leading to rewards or disciplinary action. Productivity analysis, particularly the examination of trends, helps identify problems before they become crises and permits early adjustment and corrective action.
Like any other indicator, productivity measurements do not necessarily identify the source of the problem, only that one exists. Facilitate planning and control: Productivity measurement provides information on costs, time, output rate, and resource usage to allow decision making with respect to pricing, production scheduling, purchasing, contracting, delivery scheduling, and many other activities in the industrial cycle.
Productivity analysis, together with other elements of a competitive strategy, may determine which products or processes should be expanded and which should be phased out. Productivity analysis, combined with cost data, aids in the evaluation of proposed changes to existing products or processes and the introduction of new ones.
It is one of the primary foundations for the continuous improvement efforts that are both popular and necessary for survival in business firms today. The purpose of the measurement system is critically important in determining the specific measures to be used.
For example, if the measures are to be used only for planning and control purposes, the inputs into the measures and the outputs may be imprecise aggregate figures that provide guidance for setting schedules and future capacity requirements. If, however, the measures will be used as a basis for an employee evaluation system leading to bonuses, pay raises, layoffs, and disciplinary actions, inputs and outputs of the measures must be more precise and accurate for shorter time periods, and they must exclude factors outside the control of the worker.
Questions of equity and interaction among individual jobs become evident. The functions of monitoring performance and providing feedback, diagnosing problems, facilitating planning and control, and supporting innovation are common to many types of measures, and productivity is no exception. The function of defining productivity and directing behavior, however, warrants more explanation because it is important to Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: A simple example of a waiter in a restaurant can be used to explain how measures of productivity can direct behavior.
If the measure of productivity is customers served per hour, the emphasis is on speed and throughput, and the waiter will try to complete each transaction as quickly as possible.
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On the other hand, a measure of dollars of food served per customer would lead to totally different behaviors; the waiter would suggest more expensive items and would encourage the customer to have appetizers, wine, and dessert, regardless of the time taken.
In this case, time is not a factor; the quick turnover of customers would be a disadvantage. Other possible measures could each lead to a different set of behaviors. One way to view individual productivity is to consider how the efforts of an individual contribute to the productivity or success of the organization.
Whether the actions of the waiter in each of the examples above would be productive or counterproductive depends on the type of restaurant and, specifically, its goals and objectives. A downtown delicatessen would have one set of goals and circumstances; speed in serving customers would be a distinct advantage. A fine restaurant in the suburbs would operate in a different milieu; speed in this case could be a detriment.
The fundamental question is not, what productivity measures should be used?
The fundamental question is, what are the organizational objectives? The secondary question is, what set of individual productivity measures will direct the behavior of employees to meet those objectives as they work toward their own personal goals?
The aim of the organization is to align work behavior with organizational goals. It is the responsibility of management, therefore, to develop measures that will elicit organizationally desirable behaviors.
These relationships are illustrated in the model shown as Figure Werther et al. The law of effect, the cornerstone of operant psychology, says that behavior is a function of its consequences; positive outcomes reinforce behaviors, which leads to their being repeated and expanded. Simply establishing a measure and feeding back the results to the employee can be regarded as a form of reinforcement; employees tend to work on the basis of the measure in any circumstances.
If there is a net incentive for high performance, the link between behavior and the measure will be stronger. The greater the incentive, the stronger the relationship between the two. The term net incentive indicates that many incentives and disincentives may operate in a given set of circumstances. Worker motivation is a complex issue; in taking all of that complexity into consideration, the model suggests that the net incentive should be positive and tied to performance.
Unfortunately, many organizational incentive systems are based on productivity or other performance measures that are not in line with organizational goals. Programmers, for example, may be measured and rewarded for lines of code written per hour. Accountants may be evaluated on the number of reports produced, and maintenance personnel on the number of routine equipment overhauls performed.
In each instance and many moremaximization of the measured criterion would likely be counterproductive to the organization. Following the same logic, the productivity measurement system at each level of analysis should be developed to direct behaviors and performance at one level of the organization to the goals at the next higher level. These relationships are depicted in their ideal state in my Goal Alignment model, Figure Across the top of the model, the organization attempts to make business unit goals at all intermediate levels congruent with organizational goals.
Since the organization has no control over the individual's goals or the non-work-related goals of the group, it must accept them as given and design the organization to be compatible with them. Productivity measures at the individual or group level direct behaviors to the business unit goals, if properly aligned.After He Flew To The Caribbean To Meet His Online Girlfriend, No One Knew What This Man Would Become
That is, the individuals or groups will work to the measures; it is the responsibility of the organization to ensure that the measures are in line with the goals. Reading horizontally across the bottom of Figurethe model indicates that the productivity performance of a business unit is a direct function of the productive behavior of each of the individuals and groups within the unit.
In turn, organizational productivity is a function of the productivity of each of the units. The degree to which this is true depends on the definition of productivity at each level and the interactions among the elements.
Also, in this ideal model, the individual or group productivity results would sum to the productivity of the next higher business unit and ultimately to the productivity of the organization. At the business unit level, managers will direct activities, allocate resources, and make other decisions to maximize performance as specified in the measurement system especially if rewards are tied to performance.
At each intermediate level of analysis, therefore, productivity measures should be selected and positioned such that the performance of the unit directly contributes to the goals at the next higher level.
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The Goal Alignment model suggests that individuals, groups, and business units are not goal driven, but measurement driven. The old saying that ''you get what is inspected, not what is expected" is rel- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: It is one thing for a firm to establish and communicate goals.
It is quite another to devise and implement measurement systems that can be maximized only by behavior and performance that lead directly to goal accomplishment. They distribute the loads applied to them dynamically in order to execute movement patterns. Their complex response to loading allows for multi-axis bending, and this adds to the stress concentration in the region where they attach to bone. It is stress concentration at the hard—soft tissue interface which makes entheses vulnerable to acute or overuse injuries in sport.
Conditions such as tennis and golfer's elbow, jumper's knee and various Achilles insertional tendinopathies are well known to primary-care physicians, orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists and sports medicine specialists alike.
Entheses are also of clinical significance to orthopaedic surgeons who may be faced with the challenge of reattaching a tendon or ligament to bone, particularly when creating an autograft for a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament ACL. In the present review, we focus on the structure—function correlations of entheses and pay particular attention to mechanical factors that influence form and function and thus to the relationship between entheses and exercise.
However, far less attention has been paid to tendons and ligaments than to bone and much of the current interest has its roots in the pioneering work of PloetzKummer, and Pauwels We have termed them fibrous and fibrocartilaginous according to the type of tissue present at the attachment site Fig. They equate to the indirect and direct attachments, respectively, of Woo et al. These authors based their classification system on the location of entheses associated with long bones, i.