The physiological and symbiotic relationships between the intestinal protozoa of termites and their host, with special reference to Reticulitermes flavipes Kollar. Diversity, Cytology and Phylogeny of Symbiotic Protozoa in Lower between symbionts and the termite host, which are reviewed elsewhere the cytological diversity and phylogenetic relationships in these lineages. the opportunity to study a symbiotic relationship in vivo. This article pro poses a laboratory investigation in which the student observes the rela tionship between.
Parasites transported by vector usually are pathogenic protozoans harmful to vertebrates, like Trypanosoma Chagas diseaseLeishmania leishmaniosis or Plasmodium Malaria. Mosquito of the genus Anopheles, the major vector of the protozoan causing malaria worldwide: Extracellular and intracellular symbiosis Unlike gut microbes and endoparasites, extracellular and intracellular endosymbionts are vertically transmitted generation after generation; that is, the insect inherits them from its parents Extracellular endosymbionts Extracellular endosymbionts, which can be both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, can be found in different organs of the body even in the intestine along with the gut microbes.
In any case, they never penetrate inside the cells. However, some species can be found outside and inside cells. Since many extracellular microorganisms can also be intracellular, the possibility that they are found, in an evolutionary sense, in a transition stage between gut microbes and intracellular endosymbionts has been discussed.
An interesting case of extracellular endosymbiosis takes place in some species of aphids of the tribe Cerataphidini. Like Buchnera in the rest of aphids, YLS would play a key role on aphid feeding habits, participating in the production of essential nutrients. There exist two types of intracellular endosymbionts: Mycetocyte symbionts or Blochmann bodies Bacteriocytes or mycetocytes are specialized adipose cells containing endosymbionts which can be found in some groups of insects.
These cells are vertically transmitted to the offspring and gathered together forming organs known as mycetomes o bacteriomes. Blochmann bodies, or simply the endosymbionts inside mycetomes, are related to three groups of insects: Blattaria cockroachessome groups of heteropterans within Homoptera cicadas, rust flies, aphids, etc.
Buchnera aphidicola inside a mycetome of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Buchnera cells, which are round, are located packed in the citoplasm of the mycetome. MoranUniversity of Arizona CC 2. The most well studied case is the relationship between Buchnera and aphids. This intracellular bacterium recycles the uric acid and some other nitrogenous wastes produced by the aphid in order to produce the amino acid glutamine, which is then used by this same endosymbiont to produce other essential amino acids necessary for the aphid to develop.
It is also considered that Buchnera produces vitamin B2 riboflavin. It has been confirmed that Buchnera cells decrease in number when nutrients are scarce. This suggests that aphids use Buchnera cells as an alternative food source in difficult situations.
So, aphids take more advantages from this relationship than Buchnera. Drywood termites are live in the countries that do not reach freezing temperatures during winter and they are found along East Coast from the Mid-Atlantic States to South Florida, along the Gulf Coast, through the Southwest into California, and in Hawaii.
The Subterranean termites which live in the soil underground; are able to survive in wide range of temperatures. In US, the subterranean termites are found in every state, except Alaska.Jared Leadbetter (Caltech) 1: Termites and Their Symbiotic Gut Microbes
As a pest of forest tree, Dampwood termites are rarely damage wood in buildings. They do not nest in the soil but mainly nest in decaying stumps, logs and eucalypt trees. In Malaysia alone, it is estimated there could be species of termites representing 48 genera that live in different habitats in the country Tho, A termite can correspond to up biomass of invertebrates in decomposing trunks Bandeira and Torres, At least ten identified species are known to invade wooden structures, paper products, cotton clothings or ornamental trees.
Other essentially threatening species in Malaysia include Odontotermes sp. The Mastotermitidae, Kalotermitidae, Termopsidae, Hodotermitidae and Rhinotermitidae families are identified as the lower termites, whilst the Serritermitidae, and Termitidae families are acknowledged as the higher termites.
The main difference between higher and lower termites is the gut of lower termites comprises with protozoa, while the gut of higher termites is lack of protozoa Varma et al. In the digestive tracts of lower termites, degrading of cellulose is depend on flagellates, yeasts and bacteria Breznak and Brune, ; Varma et al.
The higher termites are able to decompose cellulose by using their own enzymes Ohkuma, through the gut passage. Scientists discovered that diets and digestion of cellulose seems to differ between higher and lower termites.
In addition, most of the species of lower termites are wood-feeding termite. The digestion resistance of woods causes the termites to favour wood that has been attacked by fungi. With the presence of fungi mycelia, the woods are richer in protein content and easier to be utilised by termites. By digestion of lignocelluloses and extract their dietary requirements from food resources, it create the symbiotic relationship of termites with the intestinal flagellates and bacteria contained in a large dilatation of their hindgut, which is the paunch.
By contrast, higher termites do not harbour flagellates and typically lack protists hence show different feeding habits.
Termites and Protozoa by Karen Williams on Prezi
Higher termites decompose cellulose efficiently in the absence of hindgut flagellate protozoa Li et al. The Termitidae ingest a wide range of materials include leaves, roots, grass, dung, and soil humus Wood and Johnson, In addition, there are two groups in Termitidae, fungus-cultivating species and non-fungus-cultivating species.
The fungus-cultivating species of termites are able to build a large fungal garden in their nests. The garden is constructed by assembly partially digested plant materials and further digested by fungal mycelium Wood and Thomas, Hence, the termite workers eat the fungus comb which contained nutrition.
The main challenge facing lignocellulosic materials utilization is the energy, costs input involved in treatment and production processes.
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Therefore, researches have expanded on the potential of the termite-based biological pretreatment strategy for use in lignocelluloses degradation. Termites efficiently digest lignocellulose using their endogenous and digestive enzymes in the termite gut Breznak and Brune, ; Watanabe et al. The symbiotic digestion of polysaccharides by termites is involving a complex of host and its gut microbiota, which comprises bacteria, fungi, protozoa to degrade cellulose and hemicelluloses Radek, ; Brune, The microbial community in the gut of termites has been attracting many scientists due to their symbiotic digestion mechanisms in the hindgut are largely controlled by the symbionts Brune, Sound wood is most difficult to digest because the polysaccharides of the secondary plant cell wall are embedded in an amorphous resin of phenolic polymers which causing the barrier to enzymatic attack of the polysaccharides Brune, Therefore, an efficient of symbiont-derived digestive enzyme in cellulolytic system is required to the polysaccharides degradation Scharf and Boucias, Therefore, the incredible metabolic capability of the termite gut is potential biocatalyst in aerobic fermentative degradation of carbohydrates, and in metabolism of lignin-derived aromatic compounds Brune, The cellulose activity in the hindgut of termites is attributed to cellulose-degradation bacteria.
Termite gut contains a lot of microbes which can digest cellulose such as the Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus, Paenibaccillus, Streptomyces, Actinobacteria group and Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter; Facultative microbe: Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogens, citrobacter farmer. Most of the gut bacteria are necessary for the survival of their hosts even though they are indirectly involved in cellulose degradation in termites gut Slaytor, ; Radek, Other microbial species collaborate in turn to transform the pyruvate to different end-products, such as CO2, acetate, methane or ethanol, depending on availability of oxygen supply Nadin, While concentrations in the midgut are aerobic, oxygen concentrations are low in the hindgut Radek, Eventually the transformation cycle repeats again on another type of substrates.
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Termites are mostly feed on the dead grass, wood, and other plant material to obtain essential energy from the digestion of cellulose Andersen and Jacklyn, ; Pearce, Therefore, it is an opportunity of termite biomass used as food sources for the aquaculture, pig, and poultry industries. At present, termite microbes have been proven useful in poultry feed additive. Nutrients left behind in termite wastes may also be useful for horticultural purposes, particularly compost which potential be a novel resource for organic biofertilizers Chai et al.
Current studies showed that termite symbionts have involved as cellulolytic or lignin-derived component and degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons compounds. Hence, that would be useful for industrial application such as biomass consumption, environmental remediation and fine-chemicals production. Advances in the conversion technology will add value to existing biochemicals production and boost exciting economic opportunities of bio-based applications as well as fuels, chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
Despite slower reaction time and careful control of microbial growth conditions, biological system involving termite symbionts appears to be more appealing Sun and Cheng, ; Zheng et al.
The termite gut is explored as a source of novel microorganisms and may bring many benefits to large scale industrial applications Tokuda et al. In fact, the symbiotic association of termites with their diversity intestinal macrobiotic is receiving interests from various aspects such as microbiology, biochemistry, protozoology, insect physiology and ecology, socio-biology, evolutionary biology, and even in atmospheric chemistry Sanderson, ; Higashi and Abe, ; Sugimoto et al. Hence, researches have been further expanded on the anaerobic food web and nitrogen metabolism in the termite gut.
In addition, in microbial gut of termite, also include nitrogen fixing bacteria Benemann, ; Breznak et al. Since the nitrogen compound are insufficient in wood and soil, the nitrogen fixing bacteria e. However, the wood-feeding termites are strongly nitrogen limited Brune and Ohkuma,