Deficits in temporal processing can affect the ability to understand SPL), those with hearing loss seem to have poorer temporal resolution; they need larger gaps to detect the gaps. . Spatial separation of speech and noise sources. . Signal duration and signal frequency in relation to auditory sensitivity. and Temporal Resolution in Speech Perception. Dennis P. Phillips* in speech perception and into the architecture of auditory spatial perceptual mechanisms. any difference in spectral reso- lution and/or temporal resolution of hearing between the TEs to 8 kHz (subjects who showed a 10 dB difference between two ears SSQ (Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale).
The first formant confers information about consonant voicing Liskerand the second and third formants play a crucial role in the perception of consonant place of articulation Dorman et al.
It is reasonable to suspect that formants represent the most important spectral cues in speech. Speech contains a wide range of temporal modulations that can be broken down into general categories. For example, the syllabic rate of speech is roughly 4—7 Hz Greenbergand the rate of modulation for individual phonemes varies widely.
Consonant places of articulation can be roughly described as classes of temporal modulation envelopes Rosenwhere vowels and other sonorant sounds have slow-onset envelopes, stop sounds and affricates have rapid-onset envelopes, and fricatives have envelopes somewhere in between. Consistent with this breakdown, Drullman et al. In the same study, it was determined that the inclusion of temporal modulations at 16 Hz and higher added negligible benefit to overall speech reception thresholds in speech-spectrum noise, suggesting that most of the information is carried by low-frequency modulations.
Accordingly, Elliott and Theunissen demonstrated the dominance of temporal modulations less than 12 Hz for intelligibility in general. Among the finer temporal distinctions made in most languages is voice onset time, which is the time elapsed between the release of a stop consonant and the proceeding voiced segment usually a vowel.
Generally speaking, the boundary between voiced and voiceless stops in English is roughly 30ms though the boundary is dependent partly on place of articulation of the consonant. The time of the modulation from burst sound onset to vowel onset can thus be regarded as straddling a boundary of roughly 33 Hz. It is possible that temporal cue sensitivity is of elevated importance for CI listeners in terms of their potential success in speech perception. Compared to their NH counterparts, CI listeners are thought to rely more heavily on temporal cues for phonetic perception, on account of their poorer access to spectral cues Winn et al.
Despite the relative lesser importance of temporal modulations above 16 Hz for NH listeners, there is some evidence that CI listeners can take advantage of higher-frequency modulations. Chatterjee and Yu found a relationship between Hz modulation detection and electrode discrimination, the latter of which is arguably fundamental to spectral resolution Nelson et al.
In the same group of subjects, detection of slower 10 Hz modulations at high stimulation levels was not found to be variable enough to draw conclusions about performance. Single-electrode temporal modulation detection thresholds MDTs have been shown to correlate with vowel and consonant recognition in CI users Fu ; Luo et al. Temporal modulation sensitivity in CI users can vary widely across different electrode stimulation sites Pfingst et al.
In the context of electrical current spread in CIs, it is possible that modulation detection is adversely affected by spectral summation across channels. However, Won et al. In this study, categorization of formant cues in speech and discrimination of spectral ripples are tested in the same population of CI patients, in order to explore the correspondence between pseudo-linguistic and psychophysical measures of spectral resolution.
Additionally, parallel measures were conducted to measure auditory temporal perception; voice onset time categorization was measured in conjunction with detection of temporal modulations in non-linguistic stimuli.
This set of experiments was motivated by the following hypotheses: Additionally, we hypothesized that the relationship between non-linguistic psychophysical auditory discrimination would correlate with speech recognition, consistent with earlier literature Won et al.
The sentences were presented in the intensity of 40 dB SL, taking as a basis the average of pure tone hearing thresholds by air in the sound frequencies of Hz, Hz and Hz.
The assessed subject was instructed to disregard the competitive message recorded text and point in the table, the graphical representation of sentences heard. The responses were recorded on a chart. It was used the ANOVA - Analysis of variance- to compare the groups on the results of Gaps in Noise and sentence recognition tests with presence of competitive message SSI ; to compare the categories of dance early age on the test results Gaps in Noise and sentence recognition tests with presence of competing message and the use or not of musical instrument in the group of dancers.
The "Pearson Correlation" was also used to measure the degree of dance time relationship in sentence recognition in competitive message and Gaps in Noise tests, only between dancers. It also used the "correlation test" to validate the correlations made by "Pearson Correlation" in which measured the degree of dance time relationship with the sentence recognition in competing message and Gaps in Noise tests, the dancers group.
The significance level was 0. Data were presented using descriptive statistics.
Study of the auditory processes of temporal resolution and auditory figure-ground in dancers
Results In the present study, most of subjects of dancers group was in the age group of years and the majority were women; the non-dancers group also showed the same because individuals were matched by sex, age and education. In Table 1we observed that there was no statistically significant mean difference between groups for SSI Test Synthetic Sentence Identification with contralateral competitive message in the relationship - 40 dB.lecture 7 temporal processing in the auditory system default 8758462f
However, with ipsilateral competitive message in the relationship - 10 dB, as shown in Table 2it was found that the left ear in the dancers group had underperformed the group of non-dancers in this task. Decriptive statistics in percentage of hits for SSI test Synthetic Sentence Identification - contralateral message - relation by right and left ears and dancers and non-dancers groups Legend: Decriptive statistics in percentage of hits for SSI test Synthetic Sentence Identification - ipsilateral message - relation by right and left ears and dancers and non-dancers groups Legend: Decriptive statistics of thresholds gap in milliseconds by right and lef ears and dancers and non-dancers groups Legend: The dancers had better percentage of gaps recognition in noise test, the left ear, than the group of non-dancers Table 4.
Decriptive statistics in regard to performance subjects to gaps recognition of percentage, obtained in the gap in noise test by right and left ears and dancers and non-dancers groups Legend: Data from hearing tests SSI Synthetic Sentence Identification and Gaps in Noise by right and left ears in hit percentage values in the dancers group were not statistically significant when compared by age of onset of dance, before and after seven years.
In the group of dancers, only three individuals played a musical instrument and no differences were found in the results of hearing tests among those who played and not played musical instruments. Regarding the dance time, the group of dancers, there was no significant correlation between the years of dance time and the results of hearing tests.
Discussion In the literature, there are no studies that references to dance relationship with a better performance in auditory processing tests for the hearing abilities of temporal resolution and selective attention or figure-ground. Studies were found where there is relationship between music and perform better in central auditory processing tests. The studies are unanimous in noting that the music is beneficial to humans. It was chosen to highlight the studies on the relationship between music and auditory processing since music is a constant element and very important in the formation of the dancers.
Individuals with musical practice perform better in math assignments 11reading 4vocabulary, auditory discrimination, fine motor abilities, and nonverbal reasoning It was observed that the phonological ability, understanding speech, cognitive structures, patterns of action and increased level of intelligence in children who underwent music therapy The study by Moreno et al.
The study by Forgeard et al. Studies have reported statistically significant relationship between music and the improvement of auditory processing 14 Amatucci and Lupion 14 reported a statistically significant relationship between music and improvement of auditory processing.
The Effects of Hearing Loss on Temporal Processing - Hearing Review
In contrast to these studies, Monteiro et al. In the test, SSI Synthetic Sentence Identification contralateral message ratio - 40 dB, all evaluated subjects performed better than normal criteria established for this test in normal subjects Groups of dancers and non-dancers showed similar results in the SSI Synthetic Sentence Identification with contralateral message ratio - 40 dB. In the literature, there are no studies comparing dancers and non-dancers on SSI Synthetic Sentence Identification contralateral message ratio - 40 dB and SSI Synthetic Sentence Identification ipsilateral message ratio dB, involving selective attention.
When comparing the performance of individuals in the test SSI Synthetic Sentence Identification with ipsilateral message ratio dB to the right ear, the group of dancers and non-dancers group had no significant mean difference. However, on the left ear, it was observed that the group of dancers had a mean of The temporal acuity thresholds found in the GIN test for this study are similar to those found in national and international literature 8 9 18 20 22 who described values ranging from 3.
In this study, it was found that the dancers performed better than non-dancers as related to the percentage of correct identification of gapsThis shows that the dancers correctly identify more gaps than non-dancers do. The values obtained for identifying gaps percentage in the GIN test, are similar to those found in the literature 23 The cerebellum and basal ganglia structures are responsible for many types of functions, such as motor coordination, maintaining balance and muscle tone, emotions and cognition.
The Effects of Hearing Loss on Temporal Processing
Furthermore, it is also considered very important aspects for processing time. Specifically, the basal ganglia have been recognized as a neural structure involved in temporal question, and of point of view both perceptual and motor 25 26 It can be hypothesized that because dance is an activity that combines hearing and movement, dance practice could have positively changed important neural substrates for temporal processing, which could be demonstrated by test results GIN.
In the group of 14 individuals dancers started to dance before the age of seven, five individuals began after the age of seven and one started at seven years of age. Not found in the literature articles that asserted the correlation between the age of onset of dance and performance on central auditory processing tests. There are articles that are correlated with musicians 6 27 The study of Bailey, Penhume 6 said that there is a sensitive period for the development of the individual, for musical training, it occurs before the age of seven, this could contribute to the development of the central auditory processing, specifically the temporal processing.
The study of Ohnishi et al.
The authors also claim that contact with the music before the age of seven could contribute to the development of the central auditory processing, specifically the temporal processing. Abstract A critical review of studies of temporal resolution in listeners with cochlear hearing impairment is presented with the aim of assessing evidence for suprathreshold deficits.
Particular attention is paid to the roles of variables—such as stimulus audibility, overall stimulus level, and participant's age—which may complicate the interpretation of experimental findings in comparing the performance of hearing-impaired HI and normal-hearing NH listeners.
On certain temporal tasks e. For other temporal tasks e.
A relatively small group of studies exists, however, in which the effects of stimulus audibility and level and occasionally participant's age have been controlled through the use of noise-masked simulation of hearing loss in NH listeners. For some temporal tasks including gap-detection, gap-duration discrimination, and detection of brief tones in modulated noisethe performance of HI listeners is well reproduced in the results of noise-masked NH listeners.
For other tasks i. In three additional areas of temporal processing duration discrimination, detection of temporal modulation in noise, and various temporal-masking paradigmsfurther studies employing control of stimulus audibility and level, as well as age, are necessary for a more complete understanding of the role of suprathreshold deficits in the temporal-processing abilities of HI listeners.
The first type arises from a reduction in audibility due to elevated detection thresholds. Auditory perception can suffer from an audibility deficit whenever signals are partially or completely inaudible.
The second type of deficit is defined as the loss in auditory abilities beyond those due to elevated detection thresholds. Such suprathreshold deficits might be manifested, for example, as poorer-than-normal frequency selectivity or temporal resolution for signals that are clearly audible.
An important question in the study of hearing impairment is to what extent each of these two types of deficits—audibility and suprathreshold—accounts for the observed psychoacoustic performance of hearing-impaired HI listeners.
An improved understanding of the role of suprathreshold deficits would contribute to the effort to advance models of hearing impairment that link behavioral measures to physiological mechanisms.