Growing season - Wikipedia
Seasons are a result of Earth's revolution around the sun and Earth's . Describe the relationship between the tiltof Earth's axis and itsyearly orbit around the. Climate is often a limiting factor that determines what agricultural crops Climate affects the temperature trends, the seasons, the length of the. Across much of Norway, the agricultural growing season could become In areas of higher elevation, in fact, the difference could turn out to be.
These farmer perceptions of change are striking in that they are geographically widespread and are remarkably consistent across diverse regions Jennings and Magrath, The impact of these changes on farmers with small plots and few resources is large. Farming is becoming riskier because of heat stress, lack of water, pests and diseases that interact with ongoing pressures on natural resources.
Lack of predictability in the start and length of the growing season affects the ability of farmers to invest in appropriate fertilizer levels or improved, high yielding varieties. These changes occur at the same time as the demand for food is rising and is projected to continue to rise for the next fifty years IAASTD, Long-term data records derived from satellite remote sensing can be used to verify these reports, providing necessary analysis and documentation required to plan effective adaptation strategies.
Remote sensing data can also provide some understanding of the spatial extent of these changes and whether they are likely to continue. Given the agricultural nature of most economies on the African continent, agricultural production continues to be a critical determinant of both food security and economic growth Funk and Brown, Crop phenological parameters, such as the start and end of the growing season, the total length of the growing season, and the rate of greening and senescence are important for planning crop management, crop diversification, and intensification.
The World Food Summit of defined food security as: Food security roughly depends on three factors: The first factor is dependent on growing conditions and weather and climate. In a previous paper we have investigated this factor by evaluating the effect of large scale climate oscillation on land surface phenology Brown et al. We found that all areas in Africa are significantly affected by at least one type of large scale climate oscillations and concluded that these somewhat predictable oscillations could perhaps be used to forecast agricultural production.
In addition, we have evaluated changes in agricultural land surface phenology over time Brown et al. We found that land surface phenology models, which link large-scale vegetation indices with accumulated humidity, could successfully predict agricultural productivity in several countries around the world.
In this chapter we are interested in the effect of variability in peak timing of the growing season, or phenology, on the second factor of food security, food access.
A Review on Relationship between Climate Change and Agriculture
In this chapter we want to determine if there is a link between market prices and land surface phenology and to determine which markets are vulnerable to land surface phenology changes and variability and which market prices are not correlated.
Vegetation seasonality and change Early research on the impact of global climate change on the growing season in northern latitudes was based on satellite remote sensing observations of vegetation Myneni et al. These direct observations of change in the onset of spring led to the development of phenological models using remote sensing information. Phenology is the study of the timing of recurring biological cycles and their connection to climate Lieth, Phenology has the promise of capturing quantitatively the changes reported by farmers and providing evidence for its link to climate change.
Land surface phenology is the analysis of changes in the vegetated land surface as observed by satellite images de Beurs and Henebry, OA is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. In OA, soil fertility is maintained mainly through farm internal inputs organic manures, legume production, wide crop rotations etc ; energy-demanding synthetic fertilizers and plant protection agents are rejected; and there is less or no use of fossil fuel [ 16 ].
In relation, improved cropland management lower use of synthetic fertilizers, reduced tillage etcReducing industrial livestock production and improving feeding and grazing land management, Restoration of organic soils and degraded lands to increase soil carbon sinks, Improved water and rice management, Land-use change and agro-forestry, Increasing efficiency in fertilizer production and behavioural changes of food consumers reducing the meat content could also be main climate change mitigation measures in agriculture sector [ 57 ].
As earlier mentioned, the agricultural sector has also a potential to adapt to climate change in many areas. Climate change adaptation is a continuous process requiring location-specific response. Adaptation should enable agricultural systems to be more resilient to the consequences of climate change [ 58 ]. Farming systems and farmers will differ enormously in their capacities to respond to climate change.
Differentiated adaptation strategies and enhanced climate risk management support to agriculture and farming households are critical to counter the impacts of climate change [ 17 ]. These adaptation measures could include in particular the choice and change of species and varieties, the adaptation of the field works to the calendar more flexibilitythe adaptation of plant production practices i.
Some of them discussed below how these practices serve as adaptation means: Change crop variety It involves switching from one crop variety to another in response to climatic stresses and changes.
Introducing Avena species Ingedo species in Ethiopia as fodder crop and through time it replace the dominant stable crop i. Change in cropping pattern Application of changes in how crops are cycled within a season.
Farmers in the drought-prone semi-arid areas of Brazil have realized that several varieties of a single crop species can occupy a common land area, incorporating several bean varieties, maize and sorghum, among others, to increase harvest potential arid climate stresses [ 60 ]. Likewise, In Ethiopia farmers try to adapt CC by planting diversifies crops homestead maize and other crops.
Change in cropping calendar It is another common adaptation to climate change at the farm level, which largely involves altering the timing of farm activities to suit climatic variations or changes. In Philippines, farmers adapt to the early onset of rainy season through early cultivation of upland farms, which results in high agricultural production for the season and higher household income from farm activities [ 61 ]. In addition, according to Rhodes et al.
Changing planting dates of crops helps greatly for the farmers live in East Gojam Choke mountain in Ethiopia and East Hararghe for CC adaptation respectively. Farm management practices Change in current farm management practices such as OA practice focus on maintaining diverse farming systems i. According to Rhodes et al.
In addition, Smallholder farmers in sub-humid Southwestern Cameroon have been adapting to variations in rainfall through different soil and water conservation practices. Ditch and check dam constructions are the major soil and water conservation SWC practice that helps to adapt CC in Ethiopia.
Similarly, study in Ethiopia revealed that terracing and different water harvesting practices widely used to adapt the changed climate. Livestock management It related to livestock and their waste management. Particularly to adapt climate change farmers from central Africa implement different adaptation strategies such as Breeding locally adapted livestock species, diversifying livestock types, proper resource management practices and alternative feed production technologies use of agricultural byproducts or household and industrial waste products are needed to produce feed [ 64 ].
In Ethiopia East Gojjamfarmers has made different local adjustment of avoid the impact of CC such as planting trees that serve as a shed for their livestock, locate their livestock near to the clinic due to pest and disease infestation increased and keep their animals in home and feed them through cut and carry system in times of feed and water scarcity. In addition, during livestock waste management, manure should be collected as quickly as possible to limit GHG emission and to reach high energy potential from manure.
In South Asia and China, some livestock producers are coming up with innovative ways of storing and removing animal waste and produce biogas and the device break down bio-solids in underground fermentation units which produce gas for cooking, lighting and energy for on-farm activities.
Solids broken down in fermentation units can also be used as fertilizers in crop production, or sold for cash [ 65 ]. In this way, Livestock waste management can serve as both climate change mitigation and adaptation means. Agroforestry Given the large contribution of land use conversion and the forestry sector to GHG emissions, agroforestry presents an opportunity to counter the adverse impacts of climate change through the joint action of adaptation and mitigation [ 66 ]. Trees on farms enhance the coping capacity of small farmers to climate risks through crop and income diversification, soil and water conservation and efficient nutrient cycling and conservation [ 61 ].
- What is the relationship between climate and agriculture?
- A Review on Relationship between Climate Change and Agriculture
- Climate change and agriculture
Different researches on agroforestry in West Africa related to climate change have focused on its carbon sequestration potential and effect on soil fertility [ 67 ]. Similarly, most central Africa countries studies reported that significant crop yield increases for maize, sorghum, millet, cotton and groundnut when grown in proximity to Faidherbia albida tree [ 64 ].
Barriers to adapt and mitigate climate change in agriculture sector According to Smith et al. Costs that are related to measurement and monitoring and transaction cost incentive-based system also another barrier: When there is lack of clear ownership about the land results in less incentive to implement different land management activities become another problem.
On the other hand, According to IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, There are often technological and financial limits that prevent the scale of adaptation that we would need.
The other barriers mentioned by FAOare funding and implementation barriers.
Nhemachena and Hassan [ 69 ], identify the important determinants of adaptation in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe as access to credit and extension and also awareness.
Ishaya and Abaje [ 70 ] also found that lack of awareness and knowledge about climate change and adaptation strategies, lack of capital and improved seeds, and lack of water for irrigation played an important role in hindering adaptation in Nigeria. Similarly, Okolo et al. Another study done by Amdu, in Ethiopia reported that lack of knowledge, improper policy and lack of land use policy implementation, labor and water shortages, and information are the main barriers to CC adaptation.
Conclusion From this extensive review, it is concluded that globally, climate change has relationship with agriculture in one or another way. This relationship becomes strong in developing countries because their livelihood depends on agricultural activities and this activities mostly depend on climatic condition, For instance in Ethiopia, almost all farm activity is rain fed. In relation, the impact of climate change is very serious in developing counties due to their limited adaptive capacity and lack of technology and also they are the main emitter of noncarbon GHGs from their cattle and farm management mainly from use of synesthetic fertilizers.
Those are the main direct emitters. There are also indirect emitters such as land use change; from runoff and leaching of fertilizers; use of fossil fuels for mechanization; transport and agro-chemical and fertilizer production.
On the other hand, by the help of the right farming practice agriculture could be the main solution for climate change by mitigation and adaptation response. Within the current and projected situation of climate change globally, only climate change mitigation is not enough so long term solution is important by combining climate change adaptation in agriculture sector.
Such practices could be organic agriculture, manure management, agroforestry practice etc. Know a days, the significant relation of climate change and agriculture sector become well known. In recent years, even if the attention is not enough, the significant relation of climate change and agriculture sector becomes acknowledged.