Self-reliance and sustainable development are associated with a series of at 2 nd National Conference of Academic S taff Union of Polytechnics (ASUP) . the links between the philosophy of self-reliance and the concept of. Common national union affiliation led to expectations of support as well. of a reliance on the national union as a whole (recall that ties between union Having a common AFL-CIO affiliation had a more limited impact on interunion relations. unions began to limit their dependence on the proclivities of individual of performing the craft in a national union's rules, the replacement of reliance however, also altered permanently the relationship between the union and its members.
It is equally stupid, indeed it is even more stupid, for us to imagine that we shall rid ourselves of our poverty through foreign financial assistance rather than our own financial resources. It is stupid for two reasons. Firstly, we shall not get the money.
It is true that there are countries which can, and which would like to, help us. But there is no country in the world which is prepared to give us gifts or loans, or establish industries, to the extent that we would be able to achieve all our development targets. There are many needy countries in the world. And even if all the prosperous nations were willing to help the needy countries, the assistance would still not suffice.
But in any case the prosperous nations have not accepted a responsibility to fight world poverty. Even within their own borders poverty still exists, and the rich individuals do not willingly give money to the government to help their poor fellow citizens.
It is only through taxation, which people have to pay whether they want to or not, that money can be extracted from the rich in order to help the masses. Even then there would not be enough money.
However heavily we taxed the citizens of Tanzania and the aliens living here, the resulting revenue would not be enough to meet the costs of the development we want. And there is no World Government which can tax the prosperous nations in order to help the poor nations; nor if one did exist could it raise enough revenue to do all that is needed in the world. But in fact, such a World Government does not exist.
Such money as the rich nations offer to the poor nations is given voluntarily, either through their own goodness, or for their own benefit. All this means that it is impossible for Tanzania to obtain from overseas enough money to develop our economy. Independence cannot be real if a nation depends upon gifts and loans from another for Its development.
Even if there was a nation, or nations, prepared to give us all the money we need for our development, it would be improper for us to accept such assistance without asking ourselves how this would effect our independence and our very survival as a nation. Gifts which increase, or act as a catalyst, to our own efforts are valuable. Gifts which could have the effect of weakening or distorting our own efforts should not be accepted until we have asked ourselves a number of questions.
The same applies to loans. A loan is intended to increase our efforts or make those fruitful. One condition of a loan is that you show how you are going to repay it. This means you have to show that you intend to use the loan profitably and will therefore be able to repay it. But even loans have their limitations. You have to give consideration to the ability to repay.
When we borrow money from other countries it is the Tanzanian who pays it back. To burden the people with big loans, the repayment of which will be beyond their means, is not to help them but to make them suffer.
It is even worse when the loans they are asked to repay have not benefited the majority of the people but have only benefited a small minority.
The Arusha Declaration
How about the enterprises of foreign investors? It is true we need these enterprises. We have even passed an Act of Parliament protecting foreign investments in this country.
Our aim is to make foreign investors feel that Tanzania is a good place in which to invest because investments would be safe and profitable, and the profits can be taken out of the country without difficulty.
We expect to get money through this method. But we cannot get enough. And even if we were able to convince foreign investors and foreign firms to undertake all the projects and programmes of economic development that we need, is that what we actually want to happen? Had we been able to attract investors from America and Europe to come and start all the industries and all the projects of economic development that we need in this country, could we do so without questioning ourselves?
Could we agree to leave the economy of our country in the hands of foreigners who would take the profits back to their countries?
Or supposing they did not insist upon taking their profits away, but decided to reinvest them in Tanzania; could we really accept this situation without asking ourselves what disadvantages our nation would suffer? Would this allow the socialism we have said it is our objective to build? How can we depend upon gifts, loans, and investments from foreign countries and foreign companies without endangering our independence?
How can we depend upon foreign governments and companies for the major part of our development without giving to those governments and countries a great part of our freedom to act as we please? The truth is that we cannot. We made a mistake in choosing money — something we do not have — to be the big instrument of our development. We are making a mistake to think that we shall get the money from other countries; first, because in fact we shall not be able to get sufficient money for our economic development; and secondly, because even if we could get all that we need, such dependence upon others would endanger our independence and our ability to choose our own political policies.
We have put too much emphasis on industries. This is true The day when we have lots of money we shall be able to say we are a developed country. We shall be able to say, When we began our development plans we did not have enough money and this situation made it difficult for us to develop as fast as we wanted. Today we are developed and we have enough money. That is to say, our money has been brought by development.
Similarly, the day we become industrialized we shall be able to say we are developed. Development would have us to have industries. The mistake we are making is to think that development begins with industries. It is a mistake because we do not have the means to establish many modern industries in our country.
We do not have either the necessary finances or the technical know-how. It is not enough to say that we shall borrow the finances and the technicians from other countries to come and start the industries. The answer to this is the same one we gave earlier, that we cannot get enough money and borrow enough technicians to start all the industries we need. And even if we could get the necessary assistance, dependence on it could interfere with our policy on socialism.
The policy of inviting a chain of capitalists to come and establish industries in our country might succeed in giving us all the industries we need but it would also succeed in preventing the establishment of socialism unless we believe that without first building capitalism, we cannot build socialism. We recognize that we do not have enough money to bring the kind of development to each village which would benefit everybody.
We also know that we cannot establish an industry in each village and through this means erect a rise in the real incomes of the people. For these reasons we spend most of our money in the urban areas and our industries are established in the towns.
Yet the greater part of this money that we spend in the towns comes from loans. Whether it is use it to build schools, hospitals, houses or factories, etc. But it is obvious that it cannot be repaid just out of money obtained from urban and industrial development.
To repay the loans we have to use foreign currency which is obtained from the sale of our exports. But we do not now sell our industrial products in foreign markets, and indeed it is likely to be a long time before our industries produce for export.
It is therefore obvious that the foreign currency we shall use to pay back the loans used in the development Or the urban areas will not come from the towns or the industries. Where, then, shall we get it from? We shall get it from the villages and from agriculture.
What does this mean? It means that the people who benefit directly from development which is brought about by borrowed money are not the ones who will repay the loans. The largest proportion of the loans will be spent in, or for, the urban areas, but the largest proportion of the repayment will be made through the efforts of the farmers.
This fact should always be borne in mind, for there are various forms of exploitation. We must not forget that people who live in towns can possibly become the exploiters of those who live in the rural areas. All our big hospitals are in towns and they benefit only a small section of the people of Tanzania.
Those who do not get the benefit of the hospital thus carry the major responsibility for paying for them. Tarmac roads, too, are mostly found in towns and are of especial value to the motor-car owners.
Yet if we have built those roads with loans, it is again the farmer who produces the goods which will pay for them. Again, electric lights, water pipes, hotels and other aspects of modern development are mostly found in towns. Most of them have been built with loans, and most of them do not benefit the farmer directly, although they will be paid for by the foreign exchange earned by the sale of his produce.
We should always bear this in mind. Although when we talk of exploitation we usually think of capitalists, we should not forget that there are many fish in the sea. They eat each other.
The large ones eat the small ones, and small ones eat those who are even smaller. There are two possible ways of dividing the people in our country.
We can put the capitalists and feudalists on one side, and the farmers and workers on the other. But we can also divide the people into urban dwellers on one side and those who live in the rural areas on the other. If we are not careful we might get to the position where the real exploitation in Tanzania is that of the town dwellers exploiting the peasants. Money, and the wealth it represents, is the result and not the basis of development.
The four prerequisites of development are different; they are i People; ii Land; iii Good Policies; iv Good Leadership. Our country has more than ten million people1 and is are; is more thansquare miles.
Our country can produce various crops for home consumption and for export. We can produce food crops which can be exported if we produce in large quantities such as maize, rice, wheat, beans, groundnuts, etc.
And we can produce such cash crops as sisal, cotton, coffee, tobacco, pyrethrum, tea, etc. Our land is also good for grazing cattle, goats, sheep, and for raising chickens, etc.Mukesh Ambani Launches The Next-Gen With Reliance Jio
All of our farmers are in areas which can produce two or three or even more of the food and cash crops enumerated above, and each farmer could increase his production so as to get more food or more money.
And because the main aim of development is to get more food, and more money for our other needs our purpose must be to increase production of these agricultural crops. This is in fact the only road through which we can develop our country — in other words, only by increasing our production of these things can we get more food and more money for every Tanzanian.
The biggest requirement is hard work. Let us go to the villages and talk to our people and see whether or not it is possible for them to work harder. In towns, for example, wage-earners normally work for seven and a half or eight hours a day, and for six or six and a half days a week. This is about 45 hours a week for the whole year, except for two or three weeks leave. In other words, a wage-earner works for 45 hours a week for 48 or 50 weeks of the year.
In or a country like ours these are really quite short working hours. In other countries, even those which are more developed than we are, people work for more than 45 hours a week. It is not normal for a young country to start with such a short working week. The normal thing is to begin with long working hours and decrease them as the country becomes more and more prosperous. By starting with such short working hours and asking for even shorter hours, we are in fact imitating the more developed countries.
And we shall regret this imitation. Nevertheless, wage earners do work for 45 hours per week and their annual vacation does not exceed four weeks. It would be appropriate to ask our farmers, especially the men, how many hours a week and how many weeks a year they work. Many do not even work for half as many hours as the wage-earner does. The truth is that in the villages the women work very hard.
At times they work for 12 or 14 hours a day. They even work on Sundays and public holidays. Women who live in the villages work harder than anybody else in Tanzania. But the men who live in villages and some of the women in towns are on leave for half of their lire. The energies of the millions of men in the villages and thousands of women in the towns which are at present wasted in gossip, dancing and drinking, are a great treasure which could contribute more towards the development of our country than anything we could get from rich nations.
At the same time, seizing the opportunities created by globalization, we are able to expand the market with many forms of investment and production cooperation, promoting the strengths and comparative advantages of domestic products, enhancing labor export, increasing incomes for employees, etc. Third, proactive international integration will create close cooperation to define unified and effective mechanism, helping us solve global major problems which have been directly threatening the stability and development of each country, region and the whole world such as: It is showed that all these advantages as well as external resources have only been gained through international integration and cooperation which contributes to enhancing the country's capacity of maintaining independence and self-reliance.
However, to that end, we have to improve our internal strength, being capable of grasping and realizing the opportunity. At the same time, it is necessary to adopt appropriate policies and solutions to overcome the negative impacts of the process of door-opening and integration in order to both maintain independence, self-reliance and ensure the development of the country. Handling the relationship between independence, self-reliance and international integration.
The 12th Congress of the Party has clearly stated: It should be ensured that international integration is the cause of the entire people and the whole political system, and its acceleration is based on the maximization of internal strength, the close cooperation with the enhancement of the national combined strength and competitiveness.
The focus should be placed on economic integration as it must be benefitted from integration in other fields. Integration is the process of both cooperation and struggle which offer the proactive forecasting and flexible handling of all situations in order not to fall into passivity, confrontation and disadvantage". Accordingly, in the process of implementation, we have to thoroughly grasp the Party's foreign policy to synchronously undertake policies and solutions; however, first of all, it is necessary to avoid extremism in both awareness and action, such as: Simultaneously, there must be thorough and scientific research in the following aspects.
Economically, first and foremost, to be independent, self-reliant, the country must have real strength concretized by an independent and self -reliant economy. It is a well-structured, efficient and secure economy which includes sustainable development and high competitiveness, balanced export and import structure, diversified and abundant product structure with a great proportion of technological and high value-added products.
The international market structure is also diverse and avoids focusing too much on a few subjects. An independent and self-reliant economy in the context of globalization can be understood as an economy which is highly adaptable to changes of the international situations and less vulnerable to such changes. An independent and self-reliant economy is built first and foremost on the independence and self-reliance of the economic development policy in accordance with socialist orientation; on the promotion of industrialization and modernization, creating strong economic, scientific and technological potential and material-technical foundations; and on the proper, efficient and competitive economic structure.
The robust development should be placed on the key economic branches, sectors and products that play crucial and effective role in the economy such as information technology, biology, new materials, metallurgy, petro-chemistry, coal, minerals, mechanical engineering, etc. Due attention should be paid to ensuring national food security, energy safety, financial and monetary safety and environmental safety to guarantee that the country develops quickly, efficiently and sustainably in any situation, at ease as well as at difficulties.
Socially, the requirement of an independent and self - reliant nation implies the capacity to practice two modes of social governance: The current widespread development of globalization and international integration is creating a series of universal general power spaces that are beyond the control of the national government. In order to overcome the challenges, many governments around the world have actively reformed.
Although the content and models of reform are different, but the following three common features emerged in the trend of modern government reform, which we can refer to: Firstly, to implement the decentralization of state power, and the empowerment of local structures.
This is not a process of renouncing central power, but rather a means to strengthen the power itself in a more reasonable and effective way. The central government does not replace local authorities in the management of the society in a specific area, but monitors the management by the local government. Thanks to this process, its decisions become more realistic, encouraging more organizations and individuals to participate in social management. Secondly, to bring into full play the role of the market mechanism in allocating social development resources; and to well combine regulatory functions of the Government with the market and society.
Thirdly, to promote democracy in the whole society, not only to show the development of political democracy, but also to ensure that all the powers are of the people, and democracy is exercised among the people to help the Government implement the practical management of all aspects of social life.
From the political, security and foreign relations perspective, independence and self-reliance are the requirements of principle in the process of international integration of our country.
The Arusha Declaration by Julius Nyerere
The political independence and self-reliance imply self-determination of goals and path for national development; self-formation of developmental directions, policies and strategies; self-establishment and maintenance of political institutions, and no acceptance of any external intervention. Political independence and self-reliance are expressed both in domestic and foreign affairs, economics, culture, society, national defence and public security, etc.
The logic of the renewal process is that economic reform must be synchronized and harmonized with political reform, administrative reform, democratic expansion, legislative and judicial reform.