Pop Art: History, Characteristics
His use of pop-culture images and materials naturally caused him to be labelled as a Pop-artist, but his. Surrounded by the products of consumer culture, American Pop artists were inspired by Pop Art is: Popular (designed for a mass audience), Transient ( short-term of art, its form, its relationship to mass production, and its relationship to the. When it comes to famous pop art figures, though, it is impossible to ignore the Now the internet has given birth to a whole new world of pop culture art. Arts that act as a link between the past, present, and future of pop art.
Origins and Influences Pop-art, like nearly all significant art styles, was in part a reaction against the status quo. In s America, the main style was Abstract Expressionisman arcane non-figurative style of painting that - while admired by critics, serious art-lovers, and experienced museum-visitors - was not "connecting" with either the general public, or with many artists.
Very much a painterly style, the more abstract and expressive it became, the bigger the opportunity for a new style which employed more figurative, more down-to-earth imagery: Thus Pop-art, which duly became the established art style, and which in turn was superceded by other schools after In some ways, the emergence of Pop-art and its ascendancy over Abstract Expressionism was similar to the rise of Dada and its broader based successor Surrealism and their ascendancy over Cubism.
Both the superceded schools Abstract Expressionism and Cubism involved highly intellectual styles with limited appeal to mainstream art lovers. True, Dada was essentially anti-art, but the years during which it flourished were marked by great polarization and political strife, and as soon as things calmed down most Dadaists became Surrealists.
In any event, as explained below under Aims and Philosophy, Pop-art shares many of the characteristics of Dada-Surrealism and is indebted to it for several techniques derived from Kurt Schwitters ' collages, the " readymades " of Marcel Duchampthe iconic imagery of Rene Magritte and the brash creations of Salvador Dali eg.
And if Surrealism was essentially internalist, and escapist in nature, while Pop-art was defined by external consumerist forces, both were consumed by the need to make a strong visual impact on the general public.
Another artist who may have had an impact on Pop-art, is Edward Hopper the realist painter of urban America. Although his painterly style is very different from most pop works, his simple images of ultra-American everyday scenes eg. From the first meeting, inwhen Paolozzi presented a number of collages assembled from magazine clippings and other " found objects ", including his now celebrated collage entitled "I was a Rich Man's Plaything" created 5 years previously in their discussions centred largely around the artistic value and relevance of popular mass culture.
Four years later, inanother member of the group, Richard Hamilton, produced his own collage, "Just what is it that makes today's homes so appealing? USA Meanwhile in America, during the mids, the art world was being rocked by a number of artists attached to small movements eg. They wanted their art to be much more inclusive than traditional styles like Abstract Expressionismso they used non-art materials and focused on ordinary, easily recognizable subjects that expressed the popular culture of the day.
Among this upsurge of innovation, work by Robert RauschenbergRay Johnson and Jasper Johnswas beginning to make an impact on the important New York art scene. Between them, they opened up a whole range of new subject matter: Johns, with his paintings of flags, targets and numbers, as well as his sculptures of objects like beer cans; Rauschenberg, with his collage and assemblage artand "combine paintings" in which a painted canvas is combined with various objects or photographic images - such as: Other influential pioneers and advocates of Pop-art were the composer John Cage an influential teacher at the Black Mountain College in North Carolinaand the Performance artist Allan Kaprow This rising tide of new thinking was further enhanced by renewed interest in earlier avant-garde movements like Dada and Surrealism, whose enduring vitality was reinforced by the influence, if not the actual presence, of several ex-Dadaists and Surrealists, like Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernstand local converts, such as Joseph Cornell.
That said, it is important to state that while American avant-garde artists of this period especially Rauschenberg were indebted to earlier Europeans like Duchamp, Schwitters et al for establishing certain traditions like collagetheir unique focus was on producing art which reflected the reality of contemporary America.
By the early s, a cohort of Pop-style artists began to gain fame through solo exhibitions in places like New York and Los Angeles, several of whom used commercial printmaking techniques eg.
These new talents included: Several works, later to become icons, were shown for the first time. They included Lichtenstein's comic strip oils, Warhol's silkscreen prints of Marilyn Monroe and Campbell's soup cans, and Oldenburg's monumental vinyl burgers and ice-creams.
Pop art in the US
Strangely, until late or earlythese artists were still labelled by critics as New Realists or some other such term. Only hereafter was the term Pop-art used as a technical name for the movement, partly due to the critics discomfort with the term Realistand partly due to the presence in New York of Lawrence Alloway - now a curator at the Guggenheim Museum - who advocated the adoption of the term.
From onwards, Pop-art spread throughout America and, helped by British Pop-artists, established itself on the Continent. The movement's rise was aided by parallel growth in other areas.
In economics, via the growth of the world economy in general and the American economy in particular; in science, via the spread of television; in contemporary music, which itself became known as "Pop" through the miniaturization of radio, increased record production, the appearance of cult groups like The Beatles, and the phenomenon of pychedelia; and lastly through an expanding art market.
During the later s, Andy Warhol emerged as the Damien Hirst of his day, gaining fame and notoriety in equal amounts for his iconic celebrity screenprints, his conceptualist film work, his increasingly sleek art production methods and his self promotion - at least until he was shot and seriously wounded on June 3, Roy Lichtenstein, too, became a household name through his comic-strip blow-ups and several prestigious retrospectives on both sides of the Atlantic.
Meantime, Rauschenberg won the Grand Prize at the Venice Biennale, and maintained his avant-garde reputation by helping to form EAT Experiments in Art and Technology in to boost collaboration between artists and engineers, while Johns maintained his high standing by winning first prize at the Sao Paulo Biennale. Perhaps inevitably, having weathered the conformity of the s, and the panic of the Cuban Missile CrisisAmerican Pop-art reached its peak during the second half of the s, only to find itself infected and undermined by the angst of the Vietnam War era, and the corresponding rise of anti-Americanism.
Britain Despite being less brash, less kitschy, more romantic and more nostalgic than its counterpart across the Atlantic, British Pop-art during the early and mids was strongly influenced by a US pop culture which it regarded as being more up-to-date and more exciting than the home-grown variety.
It was during this period that Britain began importing a substantial amount of American television programs, as well as other features of American life, such as burger bars and other fast food outlets. As a result, artists began to draw on American imagery for inspiration, although often with a very British slant.
On the other hand, the British advertising and printing industry was far less developed, which restrained British artists from using techniques already well established in New York eg. Europe In Europe, the primacy of American popular culture was diluted by both language and politics. In Paris, still anxious about its junior status to New York as the world's top art centre, American pop culture was tolerated rather than celebrated. Moreover, the French avant-garde - perhaps due to its entrenched Communist Party - had a more political flavour and thus took a more Dadaist line encouraging audience participation in their preferred Performance, Happenings and Conceptual art under the umbrella term of Nouveau Realisme c.
The leading French "Pop-artists" or Nouveau Realistes were: Italy, being less political despite an even larger Communist Party! The Aims, Philosophy and Methods of Pop Art No international art movement that lasts for more than 15 years and encompasses all known art types, genres and types of media, as well as entirely new forms, can be summed up in a few sentences.
Even so, no understanding of Pop-art is possible without taking into account the following concepts which help to characterize its core. Instant Meaning The basic idea behind Pop-art was to create a form of art with instant meaning. This was in sharp contrast to the super-intellectualism of Abstract Expressionism with its esoteric canvases so beloved by arts professionals. To achieve their goal of instant meaning, Pop artists experimented with new commercial processes, like acrylic paintingcollage on canvas using materials not normally associated with painting, and silkscreen printing.
His many whimsical proclamations about art were deliberately enigmatic and contrary, avoiding clarification and forcing his audience to speculate on their meaning: I never like to give my background and, anyway, I make it all up different every time I'm asked.
He cultivated his own image like a business model which was inseparable from his art. He said, "I started as a commercial artist, and I want to finish as a business artist.
Pop art - Wikipedia
Being good in business is the most fascinating kind of art. He claimed to have removed both craftsmanship and personality from his own art: If you want to know all about Andy Warhol, just look at the surface of my paintings and films and me, there I am.
There's nothing behind it. Warhol's paradoxical statements such as, "I am a deeply superficial person" or "art should be meaningful in the most shallow way" are echoed in his work.What is POPULAR CULTURE? What does POPULAR CULTURE mean? POPULAR CULTURE meaning & explanation
Their combined panels are a memorable discourse on the nature of celebrity and its power to both create and destroy its acquaintances. The 'diptych' format was originally used in medieval painting for religious images of personal devotion, an appropriate choice considering Warhol's fascination for Marilyn Monroe. The work was exhibited in Warhol's first New York exhibition at the Stable Gallery in Novemberjust weeks after Marilyn's death from 'acute barbiturate poisoning'. The Marilyn Diptych, along with his other famous Marilyn paintings, is based on a publicity photograph for the film 'Niagara' that Warhol purchased only days after she died.
It was a style that was fixed in its format: What actually changed through the development of Lichtenstein's art was his subject matter which evolved from comic strips to an exploration of modernist art styles: Roy Lichtenstein's early work had a hint of Americana - "Expressionistic Cubism Bored with the glut of Expressionist feeling that was around at the time, Lichtenstein attacked this sagging tradition with paintings like 'Look Mickey'a large scale cartoon image which "was done from a bubble gum wrapper" a detail of this work can be seen in 'The Artist's Studio No.
His comic strip images had an initial shock value, but like much of Pop they were quickly embraced by the galleries and collectors.
Lichtenstein remarked, "It was hard to get a painting that was despicable enough so that no one would hang it It was almost acceptable to hang a dripping paint rag, everybody was accustomed to this. The one thing everyone hated was commercial art; apparently they didn't hate that enough, either.
I don't think that I look on my work as being anti-art or anything that's different from the mainstream of painting since the Renaissance. The discipline of the work is cerebral with little left to impulse or emotion or what he calls 'the character of art'. I think it can be read that way People mistake the character of line for the character of art. You can get an idea of this effect on David Barsalou's Lichtenstein Project.