Problems, Hypotheses & Operational Definitions
An operational definition of a variable is the set of procedures used to use the same procedure (replicate the research) and get the same results. in a journal article about the relationship between depression and bulimia. Problems, Hypotheses & Operational Definitions | VARIABLE CONTROL | Intro to Research Replication of previously published research result. Research Hypotheses specify a possible relationship between different aspects of the. Operational definition.. replication Answers must provide an example that describes an accurate relationship between the first part of each item with the.
In addition to recording, storing, and analyzing data. Knowledge of Research Literature Science is based upon the research literature. Without it all would have to start from zero. Familiarity with the literature in a discipline can help clarify and select problems and defines what it means to be a professional. Problems can be generated by: Identifying gaps laguna in existing knowledge.
Replication of previously published research result.
11 Tough Vocab Terms for AP Psychology Research Methods
Hypotheses - A hypothesis is a statement, which if true, solves the problem. It is a tentative explanation which formulates the problem so it can be studied systematically. Research Hypotheses are assessed by two criteria: Does the hypothesis state a relationship between the variables? Is the hypothesis testable? It is what would be expected, either by logic or by experience prejudice? Dictionary definitions provide only a set of synonymous terms for a term which may have several possible referents ie.
A term may refer to direct or indirect observation of the wor1d 1. A term can also be defined according to a theory a system of interelated meanings each supporting the othereg.: Illusory Correlation The illusory correlation is a phenomenon that psychologists must avoid during experimentation.
This correlation is when the person believes that a relationship exists between two variables when it does not. A great example of this are some superstitions like an unwashed, favorite jersey will lead to a win for a sports team. There is not actual relationship between a fan wearing and not washing a jersey and winning the game, but that fan believes that there is.
Dependent Variable The dependent variable is the variable that measures the outcome of the experiment. This is the response. For example, if we are measuring which comedian makes the children laugh, then we will be measuring how many times the children laugh for the dependent variable.
The experimenter should have no influence on what dependent variable takes place; otherwise this would be a skewed test. Independent Variable The independent variable is what causes the dependent variable.
This independent variable would be the comedian in the case of recording the funniest comedian to children. The comedian causes the laughter, which is the dependent variable, making that comedian or comedians the independent variable.
11 Tough Vocab Terms for AP Psychology Research Methods
The independent variable must be influenced by the experimenter, because this psychologist must craft the independent variable so that other variables do not influence the dependent variable. To do so would mean that the experiment contains error. A great way to control the independent variable and the experiment as a whole is by utilizing random sampling and random assignment.
Confounding Variable The confounding variable is the variable that is often referred to as the extraneous variable. This variable is unwanted in the experiment, although the confounding variable unfortunately ends up in many experiments unintentionally. The confounding variable is a variable that the experimenter did not account for initially that affected the dependent variable.
For example, the random sampling may result in not so random sample. If the confounding variable is too influential towards the dependent variable, then the experiment could be deemed invalid. Standard Deviation Image Source: Wikimedia Commons Standard deviation is a statistical procedure that is done in order to determine how far away from the average result.
The standard deviation is a way for the experimenter to tell how much variation is in the results. As the standard deviation gets higher, the more variation is occurring in the data.
For the AP Psychology exam it is important to know the percentage of the population that occupies one standard deviation, which is sixty-eight percent, and two standard deviations, which is ninety-five percent. The other five percent are within three standard deviations. This can be seen in the bell shaped curve pictured to the right. The Double Blind Procedure The double blind procedure is when neither the participant in the study nor the person giving the study know who is the control group and who is in the experimental group.
This allows the study to detect the Placebo Effect. The Placebo Effect is when a group of people feel an effect of a drug when they have actually only ingested a placebo, which is often a sugar pill that has no effect.
The double blind procedure keeps as much bias out of the procedure as possible, allowing the psychologists doing the procedure to more accurately determine if the result is accurate. For an experiment to have internal validity, then all of the confounding variables must have been acknowledged and controlled by the experimenter.
Also, there must be a relationship statistically between the independent variable and the dependent variable for internal validity.