relationship between job satisfaction and normative commitment was found. The results also show that there is a significant difference in job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job satisfaction , organizational commitment, and turnover intent for certified rehabilitation. PDF | The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Employee .
Moreover, studies by Green, Wu, Whitten and Medlin point out the impact strategic human resources management has upon individual performance, organizational commitment, and satisfaction levels for the work of human resources professionals, who were vertically aligned with organizational mission and goals, and horizontally aligned with other organizational functions. Despite the fact that a relationship between commitment and satisfaction could be observed, the understanding that commitment and satisfaction are related is not a consensus, nor is the concept that satisfaction is the antecedent of commitment, or its consequence.
Starting from the opinion of Mathieu and Zajacwho presuppose that the two constructs are related due to the lack of clarity on the impact of satisfaction on commitment, this study aimed to analyze the relationships between antecedent variables and commitment, highlighting the role of satisfaction in the two main prediction models tested in this study.
Job Satisfaction In the international literature as well as in the Brazilian literature, significant attention has been paid to the relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A brief review of the international literature on job satisfaction indicates the emergence of similar perspectives: Locke defends it as a pleasant or positive emotional state arising from the assessment of the job itself and from related experiences.
Cook, Hepworth, Wall and Warr and Cranny, Smith and Stone consider it to be an affective response arising from the analysis of actual results of an individual job, compared to those expected, desired, and required. Yoon and Thye consider that it can be construed as a sort of positive emotion that directs the organization. Distinguishing affective commitment from job satisfaction, Kooij, Jansen, Dikkers and Lange affirm that while the former refers to positive feelings toward the organization, in general, the latter refers to positive feelings more specifically related to the job or position.
To analyze the relationship between work satisfaction and achievement, Zhang and Zheng test affective commitment as the mediator between satisfaction and performance at work, and tradition cultural values as the mediator between professional satisfaction and affective commitment.
They raise the hypothesis that affective organizational commitment intermediates the relationship between job satisfaction and professional performance, and examine how cultural values can moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment, since both constructs reflect people's attitudes, which are generally fashioned by cultural values. Moynihan and Pandey examine the effects of individual attributes, job characteristics, and organizational variables in three aspects, which are considered to be job motivation dimensions: Brooke, Russell and Price and commitment attitudes can be considered different constructs.
In the Brazilian literature, the job satisfaction construct is deemed complex and difficult to define, partly due to the fact that it is understood as a subjective state that can vary from person to person, from circumstance to circumstance, throughout the years for the same person, and is potentially subject to the influence of internal and external forces of the immediate work environment.
Martinez and Paraguay indicate that the most frequent conceptual processes refer to job satisfaction as synonymous with motivation, as n attitude, or as a positive emotional state. The authors consider that there is still a lack of consenus on concepts, and on theories or theoretical models of this construct. Borges-Andrade and Pilati emphasize that the study of commitment holds advantages over the study of satisfaction, due to the fluctuations of the latter construct, and emphasize the failure, in research from recent decades, of satisfaction as a predictive variable.
The authors corroborate Bastos' perspectivewho argues that the study of commitment has been surpassing the study of satisfaction, by being a more stable measure, which can be a predictive factor of various human results in the work context.
For the development of this research, four studies on prison systems call our attention due to their similarity of contexts: Such attitudes have significant effects on these prison guards' intentions and behavior. From the reviewed literature one can infer that job satisfaction holds a prominent position, mostly because of the assumptions prepared by managers and researchers, with respect to its decisive role in the worker behavior considered relevant to the organizations.
In this study we tried to broaden the understanding of its role in the models explaining organizational commitment. Research Models and Hypotheses Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson and Tatham state that the mediating effect of a variable is confirmed when the variable intervenes and facilitates the relationship between two related constructs.
For our investigation of the possible mediation role of the satisfaction variable as an antecedent of organizational commitmentand its role as a consequent, two principal models were tested. The first model is referred to as the Consequent Model CM and it is based on the assumption that satisfaction with rewards and interpersonal relations arises from commitment Figure 1.
The second model is referred to as the Antecedent Mediation Model AMMwhich is based on the assumption that satisfaction with rewards and interpersonal relations mediates the relationship between commitment and its antecedents creativity in the work context, realistic initial expectations, variety of tasks, scope of work, and tension. This model is set forth in Figure 2. To test satisfaction's mediation role, following the recommendations in Hair et al.
Thus, two models were additionally tested: The first three hypotheses of this study address the direct relationship between the antecedent variables investigated and organizational commitment. Meyer and Allen's review provides support for the assumption that variables related to work and to context influence organizational commitment. The three dimensions of job characteristics tension at work, variety of tasks, and scope of work predict organizational commitment, with tension at work having a negative coefficient and the others positive coefficients.
Creativity in the work context positively affects organizational commitment. Thus, it is expected that the more realistic the initial expectations, the greater the possibility of fulfillment and the greater the impact on organizational commitment. Realistic initial expectations positively affect organizational commitment. The meta-analyses conducted by Mathieu and Zajac and Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch and Topolnytsky show the relationship between satisfaction and commitment.
These studies found higher scores for the relationship between satisfaction with colleagues and organizational commitment than that between satisfaction with pay and commitment.
The dimensions of satisfaction investigated in this study positively affect organizational commitment. Satisfaction with interpersonal relationships has greater impact on commitment than satisfaction with rewards. Riketta and Van Dick argue that, despite the number of studies concerned with the logical order of the relationship between commitment and satisfaction, the results are still inconsistent.
Thus there is no consensus in the literature about the order of this relationship. In this study, we assume that, although there are significant relationships between the variables investigated and commitment, these relationships are facilitated by satisfaction variables, which clarifies their mediation role. This leads to the last two hypotheses of this study: The model that considers satisfaction as antecedent presents better fit than the model that considers satisfaction as consequent.
The impact of antecedents on commitment is reduced when satisfaction is included, indicating the latter assumes a mediating role in the relationship between commitment and its antecedents. Methodological Aspects of the Research To carry out this study, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed; the former aiming to assess the relationships between the variables measured, and the latter serving to contextualize and aid comprehension of the results found. In this study, the context being investigated is quite specific.
We observe that at this institution, after nearly years of existence, the organization's role has changed. Despite this central change, it has longstanding cultural characteristics, such as the values of tradition, hierarchy, and discipline. Monjardet argued that the military institution is quite similar to the classical organization called scientific management, with a well-defined chain of command and top-down decision-making.
The specific nature of the military police explains the qualitative step in this study.
Although this step is not directly linked to our central goal, it helps toward understanding the impact context has on the results. Qualitative step - I The qualitative analysis served to contextualize and aid comprehension of the results found, through interviews, a focus group, observations and questionnaires.What is ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT? What does ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT mean?
It was subdivided into two parts: Oliveira and Freitas characterize it as a data collection technique that, when used concomitantly with other methods, can help clarify the results obtained and explain the phenomenon behind such results. Morgan considers it to be an intermediate technique between participatory observation and the open interview, without the replacement of one technique by the other. The focus group makes explicit use of group interaction, with respect to a theme, in a limited time period.
In this group, the goal is to elicit the plurality of ideas, which enables the researcher to broaden the understanding of the answers obtained. Therefore, the interviews and the focus group were aimed at revealing the culture that permeates the social fabric of this corporation, in order to better understand the map of relationships established between commitment and the remaining variables.
Thus, organizational culture serves as a background for interpreting quantitative results. According to results, there was a positive and significant correlation between job satisfaction and total organizational commitment for both countries.
With regard to the three dimensions of organizational commitment, the result showed no significant correlation between continuance commitment and job satisfaction in the Malaysian hospital, whereas in the English hospital continuous commitment had a significant negative correlation with job satisfaction. Likewise, Silva investigated the relationship between the job satisfaction and organizational commitment on hospitality employees. Buchko, Weinzimmer and Sergeyev investigated the relationship between the job satisfaction and organizational commitment in a privatized Russian organization.
According to the result, there was positive and significant correlation between five dimensions of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Similarly, Glisson and Durick found out positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the research on human service workers in human service organizations.
Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: What Are the Potential Relationships?
In the light of these findings, the following hypothesis will be tested: There is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment. There is a positive relationship between job satisfaction and normative commitment. There is a negative relationship between job satisfaction and continuance commitment. Ten pay hospitals take place in Konya. Nearly employees are estimated to serve in these hospitals. This rate is an acceptable response rate for this kind of study Pierce and Henry, The sample consisted of With regard to age distribution, 5.
In terms of time in service; Distribution of work positions of the respondents were nurses Organizational commitment affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment were designated as the dependent variables in this study, while job satisfaction was considered as the independent variable.
To measure organizational commitment, we used the 20 items Organizational Commitment Questionnaire developed by Meyer and Allen The items were classified in terms of the three dimensions of affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment.
The scale showed adequate reliability. In general, a value of 0. Job Satisfaction 3,68 0,60 0,91 2. As predicted, job satisfaction was positively and significantly correlated with affective commitment at the 0.
The result supported H1. Also, job satisfaction was positively related to normative commitment. Namely, H2 was supported. In this frame, these results were consistent with the study results of Aydogdu and AsikgilDirani and KuchinkeMarkovits et al. On the other hand, there was a negative but not significant correlation between job satisfaction and continuance commitment. This finding was similar to the study results of Ahmad and Oranya Thus, H3 was not supported.
The regression analysis was carried out to determine the efficacy level of the job satisfaction on affective commitment, normative commitment and continuance commitment.
The Results of Regression Analyses: This means that This means that 7. These findings were similar to the study results of Tsai et al Although these investigations were carried out in different countries and different industries, the findings are very similar to each other. Conclusion Analyzing the concepts of job satisfaction and organizational commitment has a great importance for the employees in services industry.
High job satisfaction and organizational commitment level of the employees enable them to provide a high motivation.
By this way, they will show a maximum effort to reach the organizational commitment objectives.
As a result of this effort, the organization will be inimitably overtopped. Unless these issues are taken into account, turnover will increase, service quality will decrease, customer satisfaction will be affected negatively, disadvantage of competition will occur, and as a result, businesses will face the threat of withdrawing.
The findings of this study need to be interpreted with the following limitations in mind. First limitation is that the results can not be strictly construed to be representative of all employees in all hospitals, because this study has been conducted in Konya, Turkey. Therefore, the study needs to be replicated in different industries and countries in order to generalize the findings.