Relationship between ghost dance and wounded knee massacre memorial

The Truth About the Wounded Knee Massacre -

relationship between ghost dance and wounded knee massacre memorial

The research demonstrates that a historical and memorial understanding of Lakota culture and relationship with the United States played a critical Laramie Treaty of and the Wounded Knee Massacre of were key events legitimizing Much like the Ghost Dancers of , the Oglala protestors of sought a. Memories of the Massacre at Wounded Knee have always run deep in Lakota Country. Looters quickly stripped the bodies of Ghost Dance shirts and other In , they founded the Wounded Knee Survivors Association, which the Massacre and establish a national monument and memorial at. th Remembrance of the Wounded Knee Massacre The celebration of life from the ghost dance movement are carried on in the “Tipi” Heritage of the Great Plains,” Brooklyn Museum in Association with University of.

While attempting to disarm the Sioux, a shot was fired and a scuffle ensued. The US army soldiers opened fire on the Sioux, indiscriminately massacring hundreds of men, women, and children.

th Remembrance of the Wounded Knee Massacre

The few Sioux survivors of the battle fled. In the aftermath of the massacre, an official Army inquiry not only exonerated the 7th Cavalry, but awarded Medals of Honor to twenty soldiers. US public opinion of the massacre was generally favorable. After Wounded Knee, the remaining Indian tribes were either subdued or forcibly assimilated into mainstream white US society.

Estimates of the pre-European contact native population range widely, from a low of 2 million to a high of 18 million.

relationship between ghost dance and wounded knee massacre memorial

Bythe native population had been reduced to approximatelyindividuals. This checked the Indian noise and Gen.

relationship between ghost dance and wounded knee massacre memorial

Miles with staff returned to Illinois. Although the story of the Wounded Knee Massacre is well-known, its causes and effects are still an enigma years later. For 19th century Americans, it represented the end of Indian resistance and the conquest of the West. For Indians, it represented the utter disregard of the U.

In the 20th century and beyond, Wounded Knee continues to fuel controversy and debate over the impetus and intent of the government that day, the role of the military, and the conflicting ways the tragedy is remembered today.

Extermination Policy Debate Dance, a significant aspect of Native cultural expression, has always played a vital role in both utilitarian and religious ritual and ceremony. In the push west in the years after the Civil War, however, Americans viewed Indian dancing as a threat.

Fearing an orchestrated Indian uprising, by the s, both the U. Some 19 years later, General Nelson Miles, assigned to investigate the Ghost Dance phenomenon among the Plains tribes, issued a warning that if the practice was not stopped, it could lead to an all-out Indian war. In response, the War Department deployed 7, troops to maintain control over the Lakota. One of the most hotly debated topics among historians today is why deadly military force was used against the tribes to enforce the ban on dancing and whether that force was a byproduct of war or the result of premeditated murder or genocide.

relationship between ghost dance and wounded knee massacre memorial

According to Catharine Franklin, Indian War expert and assistant professor of history at Texas Tech, the definition of genocide does not fit. There is no evidence of an extermination policy. Franklin points out that much has been made of the bitter remarks of General William Tecumseh Sherman, Commander of the U.

Wounded Knee - HISTORY

Grant after the Fetterman massacre, in which, 81 troops were lured to their death by Crazy Horse and Red Cloud. I fear it will result as the theoretical enforcement of prohibition in Kansas, Iowa and Dakota; you will succeed in disarming and keeping disarmed the friendly Indians because you can, and you will not succeed with the mob element because you cannot.

I neglected to state that up to date there has been neither a Sioux outbreak or war. No citizen in Nebraska or Dakota has been killed, molested or can show the scratch of a pin, and no property has been destroyed off the reservation.

It requires the fulfillment of Congress of the treaty obligations that the Indians were entreated and coerced into signing. They signed away a valuable portion of their reservation, and it is now occupied by white people, for which they have received nothing. Their crops, as well as the crops of the white people, for two years have been almost total failures. These facts are beyond question, and the evidence is positive and sustained by thousands of witnesses.

Whitside southwest of Porcupine Butte.

relationship between ghost dance and wounded knee massacre memorial

John Shangreau, a scout and interpreter who was half Sioux, advised the troopers not to disarm the Indians immediately, as it would lead to violence. Later that evening, Colonel James W. Forsyth and the rest of the 7th Cavalry arrived, bringing the number of troopers at Wounded Knee to A search of the camp confiscated 38 rifles, and more rifles were taken as the soldiers searched the Indians.

None of the old men were found to be armed. A medicine man named Yellow Bird allegedly harangued the young men who were becoming agitated by the search, and the tension spread to the soldiers.

According to some accounts, Yellow Bird began to perform the Ghost Dance, telling the Lakota that their "ghost shirts" were bulletproof. As tensions mounted, Black Coyote refused to give up his rifle; he spoke no English and was deaf, and had not understood the order. He cannot hear your orders.

At the same moment, Yellow Bird threw some dust into the air, and approximately five young Lakota men with concealed weapons threw aside their blankets and fired their rifles at Troop K of the 7th.

After this initial exchange, the firing became indiscriminate. The caption on the photograph reads: These brave men and the Hotchkiss guns that Big Foot's Indians thought were toys, Together with the fighting 7th what's left of Gen.

Custer's boys, Sent Indians to that Heaven which the ghost dancer enjoys. This checked the Indian noise, and Gen.

The Wounded Knee Massacre

Miles with staff Returned to Illinois. Milesa "scuffle occurred between one warrior who had [a] rifle in his hand and two soldiers. The rifle was discharged and a battle occurred, not only the warriors but the sick Chief Spotted Elk, and a large number of women and children who tried to escape by running and scattering over the prairie were hunted down and killed.

Some of the Indians grabbed rifles from the piles of confiscated weapons and opened fire on the soldiers.

The Truth About the Wounded Knee Massacre

With no cover, and with many of the Indians unarmed, this lasted a few minutes at most. While the Indian warriors and soldiers were shooting at close range, other soldiers used the Hotchkiss guns against the tipi camp full of women and children. It is believed that many of the soldiers were victims of friendly fire from their own Hotchkiss guns.

relationship between ghost dance and wounded knee massacre memorial

The Indian women and children fled the camp, seeking shelter in a nearby ravine from the crossfire. Some of the soldiers fanned out and finished off the wounded. Others leaped onto their horses and pursued the Natives men, women, and childrenin some cases for miles across the prairies.

In less than an hour, at least Lakota had been killed and 50 wounded. Historian Dee Brown, in Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, mentions an estimate of [26] of the original having been killed or wounded and that the soldiers loaded 51 survivors 4 men and 47 women and children onto wagons and took them to the Pine Ridge Reservation.

John Grabill, Thomas Tibbles —journalist: Then three or four. And immediately, a volley. At once came a general rattle of rifle firing then the Hotchkiss guns. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered all along the crooked gulch as plain as when I saw them with eyes young.

And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried in the blizzard. A people's dream died there.