The Difference Between Existentialism, Nihilism, and Absurdism - Unsupervised Learning - misjon.info
Do we endlessly seek for a purpose or do we simply exist? A Philosophical Ride: Comparison of Existentialism and Absurdism philosopher Søren Kierkegaard wrote extensively on Existentialism, Absurdism, and Nihilism. Absurdism originated from (as well as alongside) the 20th-century strains of existentialism and nihilism; it shares nevertheless, are compelled to find or create meaning. people consider existentialism to be a dark and pessimistic philosophy, void of hope. condition and the struggles and freedoms that humans must endure, or.
However, this suggests another term, " existential nihilism ": Existential nihilism is the philosophical theory that life has no intrinsic meaning or value. With respect to the universe, existential nihilism suggests that a single human or even the entire human species is insignificant, without purpose and unlikely to change in the totality of existence.
According to the theory, each individual is an isolated being born into the universe, barred from knowing "why", yet compelled to invent meaning. What this suggests is that maybe for some philosophers these two terms, existentialism and nihilism, may not be easy to distinguish. Finally, consider " absurdism ": In philosophy, "the Absurd" refers to the conflict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and human inability to find any due to actual lack of any meaning or value.
In this context absurd does not mean "logically impossible", but rather "humanly impossible". What this suggests is the belief that there is no inherent value and so the search for it is in vain. Where do this ideas [existentialism, nihilism and absurdism] differ? Or are they all the same?
According to Kierkegaard in his autobiography The Point of View of My Work as an Authormost of his pseudonymous writings are not necessarily reflective of his own opinions. Nevertheless, his work anticipated many absurdist themes and provided its theoretical background. Albert Camus[ edit ] Though the notion of the 'absurd' pervades all Albert Camus 's writing, The Myth of Sisyphus is his chief work on the subject.
In it, Camus considers absurdity as a confrontation, an opposition, a conflict or a "divorce" between two ideals. He continues that there are specific human experiences evoking notions of absurdity. Such a realization or encounter with the absurd leaves the individual with a choice: He concludes that recognition is the only defensible option. The absurd encounter can also arouse a "leap of faith," a term derived from one of Kierkegaard's early pseudonyms, Johannes de Silentio although the term was not used by Kierkegaard himself where one believes that there is more than the rational life aesthetic or ethical.
To take a "leap of faith," one must act with the "virtue of the absurd" as Johannes de Silentio put itwhere a suspension of the ethical may need to exist. This faith has no expectations, but is a flexible power initiated by a recognition of the absurd. Although at some point, one recognizes or encounters the existence of the Absurd and, in response, actively ignores it.
A Philosophical Ride: Comparison of Existentialism and Absurdism
However, Camus states that because the leap of faith escapes rationality and defers to abstraction over personal experience, the leap of faith is not absurd. Camus considers the leap of faith as "philosophical suicide," rejecting both this and physical suicide. If the absurd experience is truly the realization that the universe is fundamentally devoid of absolutes, then we as individuals are truly free.
The freedom of humans is thus established in a human's natural ability and opportunity to create their own meaning and purpose; to decide or think for him- or herself. The individual becomes the most precious unit of existence, representing a set of unique ideals that can be characterized as an entire universe in its own right. In acknowledging the absurdity of seeking any inherent meaning, but continuing this search regardless, one can be happy, gradually developing meaning from the search alone.
Camus states in The Myth of Sisyphus: By the mere activity of consciousness I transform into a rule of life what was an invitation to death, and I refuse suicide. The meaning of life[ edit ] According to absurdism, humans historically attempt to find meaning in their lives.
Traditionally, this search results in one of two conclusions: Elusion[ edit ] Camus perceives filling the void with some invented belief or meaning as a mere "act of eluding"—that is, avoiding or escaping rather than acknowledging and embracing the Absurd. To Camus, elusion is a fundamental flaw in religionexistentialismand various other schools of thought. If the individual eludes the Absurd, then he or she can never confront it. Camus also concedes that elusion is the most common.
God[ edit ] Even with a spiritual power as the answer to meaning, another question arises: What is the purpose of a belief in God? Kierkegaard believed that there is no human-comprehensible purpose of God, making faith in God absurd itself.
Camus on the other hand states that to believe in God is to "deny one of the terms of the contradiction" between humanity and the universe and is therefore not absurd but what he calls "philosophical suicide". Camus as well as Kierkegaardthough, suggests that while absurdity does not lead to belief in God, neither does it lead to the denial of God. Camus notes, "I did not say 'excludes God', which would still amount to asserting".
The Difference Between Existentialism, Nihilism, and Absurdism | Daniel Miessler
People may create meaning in their own lives, which may not be the objective meaning of life if there is onebut can still provide something to strive for. However, he insisted that one must always maintain an ironic distance between this invented meaning and the knowledge of the absurd, lest the fictitious meaning take the place of the absurd.
Freedom[ edit ] Freedom cannot be achieved beyond what the absurdity of existence permits; however, the closest one can come to being absolutely free is through acceptance of the Absurd. Camus introduced the idea of "acceptance without resignation" as a way of dealing with the recognition of absurdity, asking whether or not man can "live without appeal", while defining a "conscious revolt" against the avoidance of absurdity of the world.
In a world devoid of higher meaning or judicial afterlife, the human nature becomes as close to absolutely free as is humanly possible. Hope[ edit ] The rejection of hope, in absurdism, denotes the refusal to believe in anything more than what this absurd life provides. Hope, Camus emphasizes, however, has nothing to do with despair meaning that the two terms are not opposites.
One can still live fully while rejecting hope, and, in fact, can only do so without hope.