COPD and Air Pollution | misjon.info
The association between each pollutant and COPD admissions was investigated in metaanalyses using random effects models. Analyses were. Even if the epidemiological scientific evidence like a longer follow-up period of larger studies on the causal relationship between air pollution. table 2 lists the six articles providing results on the association between air pollution and COPD mortality, which was defined using International.
We were interested in whether there was more occurrence in emphysema when residents had been exposed to PM generated from a cement plant. Identifying emphysema on the chest films or HRCT is not so difficult to the skilled pulmonary radiologist, and there is not much debate about the reading results [ 16 — 19 ].
Therefore, we have attempted such an analysis. In this cross-sectional study, emphysema prevalence was affected by sex, age, BMI, smoking history and the level of exposure to dust from the cement plant. Generally, emphysema is more pronounced in men than in women [ 23 — 29 ]. The possible explanation for the fact that emphysema is more common in men was that male smoking prevalence are two to three times that of females and males are more exposed to occupational harmful agents [ 26 ].
Another possible explanation is that while females have thicker small airway walls relative to luminal perimeters [ 24 ], in males the particles can penetrate deeper into the alveolar surface due to a larger airway caliber [ 26 ].
Sex hormones also seem to affect sex differences of COPD prevalence. Estrogen act as complex influences on lung growth and development, airway hyper responsiveness, detoxification of tobacco smoke, production of cytokines and triggering a TH2 dominant immune response [ 28 ].
BMI is inversely associated with emphysema prevalence [ 30 — 34 ].
But it is independent of age, sex, and smoking history [ 34 ]. Although the relationship between BMI and emphysema seems to be related to basal metabolic rate or nutritional depletion, it is unclear if emphysema predisposes to weight loss among COPD patients or whether low body weight contributes to the development of emphysema [ 32 ].
Therefore, the causal relationship between obesity and emphysema cannot be established [ 34 ]. Smoking is the most common risk factor for COPD [ 9 ]. In a systematic review with meta-analysis, the adjusted relative risk estimate of emphysema was 4. Moreover, the OR of MEG to air pollution derived from the cement plant was similar to in the more than 30 pack-years smoking history. Higher long-term air pollution exposures are associated with emphysema [ 22 ].
The mechanisms of emphysema development caused by smoking and air pollution are similar. In other words, the pulmonary toxicity is induced by endocytosis, oxidative stress induced-apoptosis and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines when alveolar macrophages are exposed to dust [ 36 ].
Emphysema - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic
Various air pollutants are discharged in the cement manufacturing processes, mining and transportation of limestone [ 10 — 13 ]. The carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides NOxsulfur oxides SO2 and aromatic hydrocarbons in the pyroprocessing to make clinker as well as calcium oxide CaOsilica SiO2aluminum trioxide Al2O3 iron oxide Fe2O3magnesium oxide MgO and other heavy metals contained in the cement products are discharged into the ambient air [ 12 ].
In another study [ 38 ], the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils PMNs was significantly decreased among workers in a cement plant. The mean PM10 concentration was It can be assumed that residents who lived close to the cement plant were exposed to higher levels of particulate before dust collection facilities had been implemented in mids.
Because many of the participants in this study are current farmers or people who farmed before, they were always exposed to dust in the soil and to chemical substances like agriculture chemicals [ 10 ]. Therefore, we do not claim that the residents were exposed only to the air pollution derived the cement plant.
What we want to claim is that though the complex multiple factors such as sex, age, smoking, occupation and genetic factors, etc. There is also a possibility that the residents whose health was compromised have already died of emphysema or lung cancer [ 10 ]. A strength of this study was that the participants are community population, not hospital based subjects. These results in this study of 1, among 1, except for persons who were engaged in the cement plant-related working in the past occupational history were analyzed.
In addition, the MEG and LEG are similar people living in the same rural area with similar occupational mostly farmers and a small number of merchantseconomic and socio-cultural settings except the degree of the exposure to dust from the cement plant depending on how far away they live from the plant and the direction of the wind [ 10 ]. Therefore, even though this is a cross-sectional study with small population, it can be interpreted to reflect the result of the exposure to the cement particles for a long time.
There are some limitations on this study. It continues to be a major environmental health risk, particularly in developing countries where the motor vehicle traffic and industrialization increase quickly. In the course of pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange, these pollutants could induce oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in airway injury and dysfunction. It is estimated that the number of COPD patients has reached a record of 7.
Some reported that air pollutions significantly increased the risk of exacerbation or mortality, 78 whereas others found no associations 910 or relationships only for selected pollutants. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to systematically review the evidence evaluating the acute risk for COPD patients when exposed to short-term air pollution.
Methods Search strategy Systematic searches were performed to identify the studies on the associations between major air pollutants and COPD exacerbation.
Emphysema prevalence related air pollution caused by a cement plant
The comprehensive online electronic databases included both English and Chinese databases through March 30, Moreover, references were checked for additional publication details. Supplementary material S1 contains the search strategy. Risk assessment of inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiwanese workers at night markets.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; Mitigation of radon and thoron decay products by filtration. Sci Total Environ ; Higher prevalence of breathlessness in elderly exposed to indoor aldehydes and VOCs in a representative sample of French dwellings.
COPD and Air Pollution
Risk of leukemia and multiple myeloma associated with exposure to benzene and other organic solvents: Am J Ind Med ; Simultaneous removal of formaldehyde and benzene in indoor air with a combination of sorption- and decomposition-type air filters. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.
N Engl J Med ; Air pollution and child respiratory health: Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Early-life air pollution and asthma risk in minority children. Air pollution and lung function among susceptible adult subjects: Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
Environmental Health Perspectives ; The effect of ozone and PM10 on hospital admissions for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A national multicity study. Am J Epidemiol ; Long-term particulate and other air pollutants and lung function in nonsmokers. Asthma and other concerns.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; Traffic-related air pollution and lung function in children at 8 years of age: Increased levels of outdoor air pollutants are associated with reduced bronchodilation in children with asthma.
Lung cancer mortality and fine particulate air pollution in Europe. Emerg Infect Dis ; Exposure to vehicular pollution and respiratory impairment of traffic policemen in Jalgaon City, India. Studying the effectiveness of activated carbon R95 respirators in reducing the inhalation of combustion by-products in Hanoi, Vietnam: Biomass fuels are the probable risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural South China.