Foreign relations of Pakistan - Wikipedia
Back to Main Menu; Africa; Asia; Europe & Central Asia; Latin America & . Improved relations between India and Pakistan will eventually have to lead to The U.S. has played a key role in defusing conflicts but needs to develop a Additional and modest CBMs, including enhanced trade ties, would. India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of. For many years, India has focused its Latin American policy almost from trade and investment, ties with Latin America have much to offer.
When India gained independence infew Indians had experience in making or conducting foreign policy. However, the country's oldest political party, the Indian National Congresshad established a small foreign department in to make overseas contacts and to publicise its independence struggle.
From the late s on, Jawaharlal Nehruwho had a long-standing interest in world affairs among independence leaders, formulated the Congress stance on international issues. As a member of the interim government inNehru articulated India's approach to the world. India's international influence varied over the years after independence. Indian prestige and moral authority were high in the s and facilitated the acquisition of developmental assistance from both East and West.
Although the prestige stemmed from India's nonaligned stance, the nation was unable to prevent Cold War politics from becoming intertwined with interstate relations in South Asia.
Foreign relations of India - Wikipedia
In the s and s India's international position among developed and developing countries faded in the course of wars with China and Pakistan, disputes with other countries in South Asia, and India's attempt to balance Pakistan's support from the United States and China by signing the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in August Although India obtained substantial Soviet military and economic aid, which helped to strengthen the nation, India's influence was undercut regionally and internationally by the perception that its friendship with the Soviet Union prevented a more forthright condemnation of the Soviet presence in Afghanistan.
In the late s, India improved relations with the United States, other developed countries, and China while continuing close ties with the Soviet Union. In the s, India's economic problems and the demise of the bipolar world political system forced India to reassess its foreign policy and adjust its foreign relations. Previous policies proved inadequate to cope with the serious domestic and international problems facing India.
The end of the Cold War gutted the core meaning of nonalignment and left Indian foreign policy without significant direction. The hard, pragmatic considerations of the early s were still viewed within the nonaligned framework of the past, but the disintegration of the Soviet Union removed much of India's international leverage, for which relations with Russia and the other post-Soviet states could not compensate.
The Kargil War resulted in a major diplomatic victory for India. The United States and European Union recognised the fact that Pakistani military had illegally infiltrated into Indian territory and pressured Pakistan to withdraw from Kargil. Several anti-India militant groups based in Pakistan were labelled as terrorist groups by the United States and European Union.
India has often represented the interests of developing countries at various international platforms. India's then-defence minister, George Fernandessaid that India's nuclear programme was necessary as it provided a deterrence to potential Chinese nuclear threat. Most of the sanctions imposed on India were removed by India's extensive contribution to the War on Terrorcoupled with a surge in its economy, has helped India's diplomatic relations with several countries.
Over the past three years, India has held numerous joint military exercises with US and European nations that have resulted in a strengthened US-India and EU-India bilateral relationship. India's bilateral trade with Europe and United States has more than doubled in the last five years. The US argued that India's strong nuclear non-proliferation record made it an exception, however this has not persuaded other Nuclear Suppliers Group members to sign similar deals with India.
Though India is not a part of any major military alliance, it has close strategic and military relationship with most of the fellow major powers. Russia is the largest supplier of military equipment to India, followed by Israel and France. India was seen as one of the standard bearers of the developing world and claimed to speak for a collection of more than 30 other developing nations at the Doha Development Round. India also enjoys friendly relations with the Persian Gulf countries and most members of the African Union.
India then launches a coordinated land, air and sea assault on East Pakistan. The Pakistani army surrenders at Dhaka, and its army of more than 90, become prisoners of war. Hostilities lasted 13 days, making this one of the shortest wars in modern history.
East Pakistan becomes the independent country of Bangladesh on December 6, Click here for more on the Kashmir conflict - Pakistani Prime Minister Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign an agreement in the Indian town of Simla, in which both countries agree to "put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of a durable peace in the subcontinent".
Both sides agree to settle any disputes "by peaceful means". The Simla Agreement designates the ceasefire line of December 17,as being the new "Line-of-Control LoC " between the two countries, which neither side is to seek to alter unilaterally, and which "shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognised position of either side".
Pakistan rejects the accord with the Indian government. India refers to the device as a "peaceful nuclear explosive". These include "nuclear power and research reactors, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, isotopes separation and reprocessing facilities as well as any other installations with fresh or irradiated nuclear fuel and materials in any form and establishments storing significant quantities of radio-active materials".
Both sides agree to share information on the latitudes and longitudes of all nuclear installations.
This agreement is later ratified, and the two countries share information on January 1 each year since then. Muslim political parties, after accusing the state government of rigging the state legislative elections, form militant wings.
Pakistan says that it gives its "moral and diplomatic" support to the movement, reiterating its call for the earlier UN-sponsored referendum. India says that Pakistan is supporting the insurgency by providing weapons and training to fighters, terming attacks against it in Kashmir "cross-border terrorism". Militant groups taking part in the fight in Kashmir continue to emerge through the s, in part fuelled by a large influx of "mujahideen" who took part in the Afghan war against the Soviets in the s.
Pakistan responds by detonating six nuclear devices of its own in the Chaghai Hills. The tests result in international sanctions being placed on both countries.
In the same year, both countries carry out tests of long-range missiles. The two sign the Lahore Declaration, the first major agreement between the two countries since the Simla Accord. Some of the diplomatic gains are eroded, however, after the Kargil conflict breaks out in May.
In OctoberGeneral Pervez Musharraf, the Pakistani chief of army staff, leads a military coup, deposing Nawaz Sharif, the then prime minister, and installing himself as the head of the government. Following that attack, Farooq Abdullah, the chief minister of Indian-administered Kashmir, calls on the Indian government to launch a full-scale military operation against alleged training camps in Pakistan.
That summit collapses after two days, with both sides unable to reach agreement on the core issue of Kashmir. On December 13, an armed attack on the Indian parliament in New Delhi leaves 14 people dead. India blames Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Muhammad for the attacks. The attacks lead to a massing of India's and Pakistan's militaries along the LoC. The standoff only ends in Octoberafter international mediation. This year marks the beginning of the Composite Dialogue Process, in which bilateral meetings are held between officials at various levels of government including foreign ministers, foreign secretaries, military officers, border security officials, anti-narcotics officials and nuclear experts.
India/Pakistan Relations and Kashmir: Steps Toward Peace
In November, on the eve of a visit to Jammu and Kashmir, the new Indian prime minister, Manmohan Singh, announces that India will be reducing its deployment of troops there. The fifth round of talks regarding the review of nuclear and ballistic missile-related CBMs is held as part of the Composite Dialogue Process. A series of Kashmir-specific CBMs are also agreed to including the approval of a triple-entry permit facility.