Cognition and Cognitive Science - The Importance of Cognition
The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. The Relationship between Learning Styles and Cognitive Traits - Model (CTM) - are explained to provide background information for the current investigation. Explore the cognitive processes your brain is going through right now to learn information. We'll define key terms and discuss the two leading.
It postulates different mental subsystems, each with a distinct function, that support and feed information to each other. The basically modal structure of the memory was supported by cases of brain damage that affected different parts of the memory unequally .
Most versions of the modal model were divided into three major sections: The unequal part of memory challenges students' ability to learn simultaneously, ability to grasp the knowledge. Three-part Working Memory Model[ edit ] Figure 3. The three- part working memory model.
It was obvious that something had to be carrying out the processes assigned to short-term memory. Figure 3 presents the three-part working memory model. There are many variations of this model, reflecting the uncertainty researchers have about how exactly it functions. However, it is generally agreed that the working memory is tightly linked with the long-term memory, since past knowledge has a very strong influence on conceptions in the present.
The most influential scheme for the working memory was put forward by Baddeley . This divided the working memory into three components: This multi-component scheme is supported by a number of pieces of experimental evidence, such as the KF Case Study, where an accident severely impaired verbal processing while leaving visual processing almost intact. This strongly implies that verbal and visual processing are controlled by two different systems .
It is also supported by the observation that visual and phonemic tasks can be carried out at the same time with relatively little impairment, showing that they do not depend on the same mental resources . Central Executive[ edit ] The central executive or executive control system has been compared to a director controlling the activities of two subordinates, the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad.
It oversees the functions of the working memory, selects information and strategies, and decides what the working memory will concentrate on. It coordinates performance on different tasks, decides among retrieval strategies, switches focus among different inputs, and interacts with the long-term memory to retrieve and work with information .
Despite its critical importance, little is known about the detailed working of the central executive. Whether it carries out its various functions as a single coordinated system or a collection of independent subsystems is not clear . Phonological loop[ edit ] The phonological loop deals with spoken and written information. It is a passive short-term storage system for information that is received by reading or hearing . Information is stored in an articulation code, which means that written data must be converted before it can be retained.
Aural data goes directly into the store . The phonological loop is divided into two parts. It is a passive short-term storage system for visual and spatial information received through the eyes.
Information is stored as images, which must be interpreted to retrieve specific details. It also creates and manipulates mental images, and turns material in the long-term memory back into usable information on spatial arrangement . The visuo-spatial sketchpad appears to function even in individuals that have never enjoyed the power of sight, since such individuals have clear concepts of spatial distribution.
This indicates that concepts of spatial distribution are independent of visual input. It has thus been suggested that the visuo-spatial sketchpad be split into two independent functions, one concerned with purely visual data, and another with spatial concepts.
Multimedia Learning[ edit ] Developed by Richard Mayer, the multimedia learning derives from the concept that learning works effectively with the use of words and images.
Multimedia learning draws upon three major assumptions: Cognitive Load Theory[ edit ] Cognitive load is a concept proposed by John Sweller who states that having a high amount of information at a given time, will exceed the capacity of the working memory which composes of articulatory and acoustic components.
If the information received by the human brain exceeds the limit of what the working memory can temporarily hold, then it cannot be retained into storage . Because the working memory acts as a system for storing and processing new information, we face the challenge of transferring acquired information for long term memory, ultimately placing strain on learning, when there are exceeding amounts of incoming stimuli.
In order to test this statement, many researchers conducted studies to find correlations for improved performance though the use of multimedia learning principles.
A brief review of the research conducted by Billie Eilam and his colleagues will be examined as an example. Eilam conducted an experiment involving college students, whereby participants were evenly divided into two groups.
Each individuals received the same amount of cards required to perform a given homework.
Cognitive Learning Theory
Group one received cards that were printed in texts, while the second group received information in both text and images, such as graphs. Results indicated that the latter group performed much more accurately compared to the first group . Active Processing[ edit ] Active processing, is the last assumption that is based on the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.
It states that the human mind processes information actively, in order to construct meaningful learning and retention of memories, through three main cognitive measurements: More specifically, humans are active learners because of their ability to process received input.
How well people process incoming information however, depends on their ability to make sense of the materials they draw from and to make connections with information gathered, in order for meaningful learning to take place. It may be helpful then, to examine strategies or methods that help to foster active learning in people through paying attention, filtering, and organizing selected materials into coherent representations, thereby integrating it with previous and new information.
Information Process Model[ edit ] acquired from http: More specifically, cognitive psychology compares how the human mind processes, much in the same way a computer processes.
Cognitive Learning Theory - Using Thinking to Learn
With the development of computers, the study of cognitive psychology adopted a concept behind computer simulations, which became a fundamental tool for understanding how cognitive processing in humans worked . The computer model is one that imitates the cognitive functions of a human mind. The similarities include receiving information from an exterior stimulus, organizing and encoding input in various ways, transferring data to storage systems, and retrieving of output when needed.
Through the analogy of information processing approach, psychologists determined that human thoughts could only process a limited amount of information at a given time . Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed that human memories like a computer are formed through a series of channels.
Similar to a keyboard entering information onto a computer, the human mind initially receives information through what is called the sensory register, or in other words, sensory organs. By then, information is either transferred for use, discarded or stored into long-term memory. For a computer, this stage of processing would take place on a hard disk in a computer .
To begin with, the human mind transforms multiple forms of sensory information e. They created the modal model, which was also known as information processing model, to distinguish control processes and memory structures.
Control processes are basically the specific processes that information stored, such as, encoding, retrieval processing. The human memory structure is consisted of three separate components, sensory memory, short-term memory and long term memory.
One criticism that worthy to mention is that the modal model maybe not just a unidirectional flow, the actual information processing is more complex. Sensory Memory[ edit ] Sensory memory is a system that holds environment input in sensory registers so that perceptual analyses can work before that information fade away.
Unfortunately, perceptual analyses take time and effort and the environment may change rapidly. The duration of holding information in our sensory memory is extremely short. In his experiment, participants were showed a slide of arrays of letters. The first study result illustrated that the length of time exposed to participants directly influenced their performance.
Base on this result, he made two assumptions, first, subjects only saw limited amount of letter within the short period. Second, all the letters were registered, but lost. He then developed partial report method to test his assumptions . Participants only reported one of the rows letters after hearing a tone. Can You Improve Cognition? Is it possible to improve cognition? Below we will show a tool and strategy oriented to improve cognition and cognitive performance: This program was designed by a team of neurologists and cognitive psychologists that study synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis processes.
You only need 15 minutes a day times a week to stimulate your cognitive processes.Information processing model: Sensory, working, and long term memory - MCAT - Khan Academy
This program is available online, and has programs specific for individuals, researchers, health professionals, and schools. The cognitive stimulation exercises from CogniFit effectively assess more than 20 fundamental cognitive functions, which are clearly defined and subject to an objective target control, which provides standardized results of age and demographic criteria based on thousands of results.
The different interactive exercises are presented as fun brain games that you can practice on your computer. After each session, CogniFit will present a detailed picture, showing the evolution of the user's cognitive state.
It also compares their cognitive performance to other users.
Cognition and Instruction/Learning and Memory
It has been shown that the battery of online clinical exercises from CogniFit promotes the creation of new synapses and neural circuits that are able to reorganize and recover function in the most deteriorated cognitive domains. We know that, with time, the brain can change its structure and functioning.
This is what we call brain or neuroplasticity Because of this brain plasticity, or neuroplasticity, we are able to improve our cognitive skills, and also restore or maintain them if our brain is affected by a brain trauma brain trauma, stroke or a neurological disease Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer'scognitive deterioration ….
Brain plasticity allows us to create new brain connections and increase neural circuits, which ultimately improves their functionality. If neuroscience and studying brain plasticity has shown us anything, it is that the more we use a neural circuit, the stronger it gets.
The cognitive stimulation program from CogniFit works to explore our cognitive processes. Once we are able to understand each individual's cognitive state, we are offer them a personalized cognitive training program.
Focusing on the most challenging tasks will ensure that we are creating and establishing new neural connections, which will get stronger and stronger the more that they are trained.
Stress increases cortisol levels, which attacks the myelin of the axons and impedes information from being efficiently transmitted. If we are able to reduce the stress in our lives, we may be able to improve our cognition, because reducing stress improves synaptic connections. Keeping a positive attitude makes us more creative when solving problems, and probably makes us more cognitively flexible. Meditation can also help our cognition. In the last few years, more and more studies have been looking at the effects of meditation on cognitive processes.
It requires concentration and conscious attention, which as we said, are important for creating new functional circuits. The study seems to support this idea, and meditation has been related to improvements in attention, memory, executive functions, processing speed, and general cognition. Doing some exercise can also improve cognition.
As early childhood educators, we are most concerned with the first two stages of cognitive psychology, which take children from birth to about seven years of age.
In the sensorimotor stage, infants up to age two, learn about their world through sensory and motor experiences. For example, children learn to move their bodies between birth and age two by first rolling, then creeping, crawling, standing, and finally walking. According to Piaget, the cognitive processes of an infant in the sensorimotor stage would then include touching, mouthing, watching and listening, as well as all fine and gross motor activity.
The preoperational stage is a bit more complex, and lasts from the age of two years to about seven years. Preoperational-stage children learn by watching others and imitating their behaviors. For example, a toddler may watch mom feed the baby, and then imitate the action with her own doll.
Primitive reasoning also takes place during the preoperational stage, as children begin to make assumptions about the world around them and ask many questions. Impact on Teaching As early childhood educators, we should be aware that learning takes place through several cognitive processes.