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The Olympics, Paralympics, and Special Olympics are all sports organizations. and practicing swimming once or twice a week and then go to a swim meet. The Paralympics is a very major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range Paralympians strive for equal treatment with non-disabled Olympic athletes, but there is a large funding gap .. by producing a 2 minute trailer for its coverage, "Meet the Superhumans"; which premièred simultaneously on over. We're the Superhumans: meet the stars of Channel 4's Paralympics trailer Sometimes this can be inconvenient, patronising or even irritating.
NRK-sport were critical of parts of the TV production from Vancouver, and notified the EBU of issues such as the biathlon coverage excluding the shooting, and cross-country skiing with skiers in the distance, making it hard to follow the progress of the competition. NRK were far more pleased with the production of the ice sledge hockey and wheelchair curling events, which they felt reached the same level as the Olympic Games.
It's about time they caught up. Disability sport classification Olena Iurkovska of Ukraine competing on cross-country sit-skis at the Winter Paralympics. Athletes are divided within each category according to their level of impairment, in a functional classification system which differs from sport to sport. Categories[ edit ] The IPC has established ten disability categories, including physical, visual, and intellectual impairment.
Athletes with one of these disabilities can compete in the Paralympics though not every sport can allow for every disability category.
These categories apply to both Summer and Winter Paralympics. Impaired muscle power — With impairments in this category, the force generated by muscles, such as the muscles of one limb, one side of the body or the lower half of the body is reduced, e. Impaired passive range of movement — Range of movement in one or more joints is reduced in a systematic way. Acute conditions such as arthritis are not included. Loss of limb or limb deficiency — A total or partial absence of bones or joints from partial or total loss due to illness, trauma, or congenital limb deficiency e.Public Enemy - Harder Than You Think Music Video (Paralympic Theme Song)
Leg-length difference — Significant bone shortening occurs in one leg due to congenital deficiency or trauma. Short stature — Standing height is reduced due to shortened legs, arms and trunk, which are due to a musculoskeletal deficit of bone or cartilage structures.
Hypertonia may result from injury, disease, or conditions which involve damage to the central nervous system e. Ataxia — Ataxia is an impairment that consists of a lack of coordination of muscle movements e. Athetosis — Athetosis is generally characterized by unbalanced, involuntary movements and a difficulty maintaining a symmetrical posture e. Visual Impairment — Athletes with visual impairment ranging from partial vision, sufficient to be judged legally blindto total blindness.
This includes impairment of one or more component of the visual system eye structure, receptors, optic nerve pathway, and visual cortex. Beginning inthese guides along with sighted goalkeepers in 5-a-side football became eligible to receive medals of their own. The IPC primarily serves athletes with physical disabilities, but the disability group Intellectual Disability has been added to some Paralympic Games.
This includes only elite athletes with intellectual disabilities diagnosed before the age of The classification systems differ from sport to sport and are intended to open up sports to as many athletes as possible who can participate in fair competitions against athletes with similar levels of ability. The biggest challenge in the classification system is how to account for the wide variety and severity of disabilities. Consequently, there is a range of impairment within most classifications.
An athlete's medical condition was the only factor used to determine what class they competed in. For example, an athlete who had a spinal cord injury that resulted in lower limb paresis, would not compete in the same wheelchair race as an athlete with a double above-knee amputation.
The fact that their disability caused the same impairment did not factor into classification determination, the only consideration was their medical diagnosis. It was not until views on disabled athletics shifted from just a form of rehabilitation to an end in itself, that the classification system changed from medical diagnosis to a focus on the functional abilities of the athlete.
In a functional system, the focus is on what effect the athlete's impairment has on his or her athletic performance. Under this system, athletes with total loss of function in their legs will compete together in most sports, because their functional loss is the same and the reason for the loss is immaterial. The only exception to the functional system is the classification format used by International Blind Sport Federation IBSAwhich still uses a medically based system.
Paralympics versus Special Olympics: What’s the Difference?
For example, goalball is only for visually impaired athletes. The Paralympics recognizes three different grades of visual impairment, consequently all competitors in goalball must wear a visor or "black out mask" so that athletes with less visual impairment will not have an advantage. In athletics, participants are broken down into a range of classes based on the disability they have and then they are placed in a classification within that range based on their level of impairment.
Members of the team are each given a point value based on their activity limitation. A lower score indicates a more severe activity limitation than a higher score.
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A team cannot have more than a certain maximum total of points on the field of play at the same time to ensure equal competition. For example, in wheelchair rugby, the five players' combined disability number must total no more than eight points. Paralympic sports There are twenty-two sports on the Summer Paralympic program and five sports on the Winter Paralympics program. Within some of the sports are several events. For example, alpine skiing has downhill, super combined, super-G, slalom, giant slalom.
The IPC has governance over several of the sports but not all of them. Cheating at the Paralympic Games After the Sydney gamesa Spanish basketball player alleged that several members of the gold-medal winning Spanish basketball intellectually disabled ID team were not disabled.
He claimed that only two athletes out of the twelve-member team met the qualifications of an intellectually disabled athlete. In an interview with the president of the federation that oversees ID competition, Fernando Martin Vicente admitted that athletes around the world were breaking the ID eligibility rules.
The IPC responded by starting an investigation of its own. Four sports, swimming, athletics, table tennis and rowing, were anticipated to hold competitions for ID athletes at the Summer Paralympics. At the Games in Beijing, three powerlifters and a German basketball player were banned after having tested positive for banned substances.
Many people confuse the Paralympics and the Special Olympics.
Paralympic Games - Wikipedia
The two organizations are different in at least three key areas: The disability categories of athletes that compete in the programs are different. The training, criteria, and philosophy under which the athletes compete are different. The structures of the individual organizations are different.
Because there is so much confusion between the Special Olympics and the Paralympics, some clarification is needed. First, the athletes in each organization are very different.
In the Special Olympics, the athletes must have cognitive delays intellectual or developmental disabilities. The age minimum is eight years old, and a majority of athletes involved with Special Olympics are children, although adults do participate, too. There are age divisions.
In contrast, athletes involved in Paralympic sports are mainly those with physical disabilities as opposed to intellectual ones.
However, there are also two categories for blind swimmers and one for swimmers with intellectual disabilities. Although there is no age limit or minimum for the Paralympic games, as long as the athlete is at a reasonable age to compete, most Paralympians are young adults between 18 and 30 years of age because the level of competition is elite.
Development in the technique and power of the sport requires many years of training. There are age divisions at a junior level, but when a junior age athlete moves into actual Paralympic competition events, there are no age divisions. Training is also different. Although there are some exceptions, generally, an athlete going to a Special Olympic competition may spend one season learning to swim and practicing swimming once or twice a week and then go to a swim meet.
The next season, the athlete may practice volleyball and then compete in Special Olympics volleyball games. An athlete training for the Paralympics, on the other hand, has essentially the same training regimen as an Olympic athlete, with year-round, intense daily and highly specialized training in a specific sport.
Some Paralympic athletes train along with Olympic athletes at the Olympic training facilities in their countries.