IBM Personal Computer - Wikipedia
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number , and was introduced on August 12, It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of . Because it was the first to emulate APL\ performance on a portable. In the aftermath, IBM hired Microsoft to build the operating system for its PC. was standing squarely on its feet and did not need anymore of IBM's rich contracts to make ends meet. Although the design of the first PC language and upgrade. The BSEE with the computer engineering option is for those more interested in the first kind of project, the BSCPE is for those more interested in the second.
The editorial acknowledged that "some factions in our industry have looked upon IBM as the 'enemy'", but concluded with optimism: In — a team led by Dr. A non-working industrial design model was also created in by industrial designer Tom Hardy illustrating how the SCAMP engineering prototype could be transformed into a usable product design for the marketplace.
This design model was requested by IBM executive Bill Lowe to complement the engineering prototype in his early efforts to demonstrate the viability of creating a single-user computer. In the late s such a machine would have been nearly as large as two desks and would have weighed about half a ton. Later models followed in the trend: A Design History of Computer Vapourware.
One such concept incode-named Aquarius, was a working prototype utilizing advanced bubble memory cartridges. While this design was more powerful and smaller than Apple II launched the same year, the advanced bubble technology was deemed unstable and not ready for mass production.
History of personal computers
It has nothing at all to do with office automation. Rhines of TI, for example, in met with a Boca Raton group considering the TMS for a secret bit microprocessor-based project  —but had determined from studying the market for years, and building the prototypes during the s, that IBM was unable to internally build a personal computer profitably.
Computer dealers were very interested in selling an IBM product, but told Lowe that the company could not design, sell, or service it as IBM had previously done.
An IBM microcomputer, they said, must be composed of standard parts that store employees could repair. Aware that the company needed to enter the market quickly  —even the schools in Broward Countynear Boca Raton, purchased Apples  —in July Lowe met with Opel, Cary, and others on the important Corporate Management Committee. The crude prototype barely worked when he demonstrated it in August, but Lowe presented a detailed business plan that proposed that the new computer have an open architecture, use non-proprietary components and software, and be sold through retail stores, all contrary to IBM practice.
With Opel's strong support, in October it approved turning the group into another IBU codenamed "Project Chess" to develop "Acorn", with unusually large funding to help achieve the goal of introducing the product within one year of the August demonstration.
After Lowe's promotion Don Estridge became the head of Chess. How are you going to argue with that? The processor was more than an order of magnitude more powerful than the Inteland the operating system more advanced than the PC DOS 1.
IBM had recently developed the Datamaster business microcomputer, which used a processor and other chips from Intel; familiarity with them and the immediate availability of the was a reason for choosing it for the PC. The pin expansion bus slots were designed to be similar to the Datamaster slots. Differences from the Datamaster included avoiding an all-in-one design while limiting the computer's size so that it would still fit on a standard desktop with the keyboard also similar to the Datamaster'sand 5.
Steve Wozniak | Biography & Facts | misjon.info
Delays due to in-house development of the Datamaster software was a reason why IBM chose Microsoft BASIC—already available for the —and published available technical information to encourage third-party developers. To save time and money, the IBU built the machine with commercial off-the-shelf parts from original equipment manufacturers whenever possible, with assembly occurring in Boca Raton at a plant Estridge designed.
Because of the off-the-shelf parts only the system unit and keyboard has unique IBM industrial design elements. They stayed after selection, monitoring and helping to improve the manufacturing process.
When an individual mentioned in public on a Saturday that his company was working on software for a new IBM computer, IBM security appeared at the company on Monday to investigate the leak. Management Science America did not know until after agreeing to buy Peachtree Software in that the latter was working on software for the PC.
One writer compared the "silence" after asking one about his role at the company to " hit[ting] the wall at the Boston Marathon: It's a tool that could soon be on your desk, in your home or in your child's schoolroom.
It can make a surprising difference in the way you work, learn or otherwise approach the complexities and some of the simple pleasures of living. It's the computer we're making for you.
The company intentionally set prices for it and other configurations that were comparable to those of Apple and other rivals;      what Dan Bricklin described as "pretty competitive" pricing surprised him and other Software Arts employees. After studying Apple's successful distribution network, the company for the first time sold through others, ComputerLand and Sears Roebuck. The company was aware of its strong corporate reputation among potential customers; an early advertisement began "Presenting the IBM of Personal Computers".
For your business, your project, your department, your class, your family and, indeed, for yourself.
Computer Engineering Frequently Asked Questions
The feeling was so radically different—it's like stepping out into a warm breeze. Its rapid development amazed observers,  as did the willingness of the Colossus of Armonk to sell as a launch title Microsoft Adventure a video game that, its press release stated, brought "players into a fantasy world of caves and treasures" ;    the company even offered an optional joystick port.
All they wanted to talk about was the IBM Personal Computer—what it was, its potential and limitations, and most of all, the impact IBM would have on the business of personal computing. Within seven weeks Bunnell helped found PC Magazine,  the first periodical for the new computer. Practical use required adding peripherals such as keyboards, computer displaysdisk drivesand printers. Micral N was the earliest commercial, non-kit microcomputer based on a microprocessor, the Intel It was built starting inand few hundred units were sold.
This had been preceded by the Datapoint infor which the Intel had been commissioned, though not accepted for use. In the late s such a machine would have been nearly as large as two desks and would have weighed about half a ton. It used the Intel processor. It had a graphical user interface GUI which later served as inspiration for Apple's Macintoshand Microsoft's Windows operating system.
The Alto was a demonstration project, not commercialized, as the parts were too expensive to be affordable. The Wang microcomputer of had a full-size cathode ray tube CRT and cassette tape storage. The introduction of the microprocessora single chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after Altair computer saw the introduction of what is considered by many to be the first true "personal computer", the Altair created by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems MITS.
The Apple I computer differed from the other kit-style hobby computers of era. At the request of Paul Terrellowner of the Byte ShopJobs and Wozniak were given their first purchase order, for 50 Apple I computers, only if the computers were assembled and tested and not a kit computer.
Terrell wanted to have computers to sell to a wide range of users, not just experienced electronics hobbyists who had the soldering skills to assemble a computer kit.
- Personal computer
- IBM Personal Computer
- Steve Wozniak
The Apple I as delivered was still technically a kit computer, as it did not have a power supply, case, or keyboard when it was delivered to the Byte Shop. The first successfully mass marketed personal computer to be announced was the Commodore PET after being revealed in January However, it was back-ordered and not available until later that year.
Together, these 3 machines were referred to as the " trinity". Mass-market, ready-assembled computers had arrived, and allowed a wider range of people to use computers, focusing more on software applications and less on development of the processor hardware.