Battle of Okinawa: The Bloodiest Battle of the Pacific War | HistoryNet
successfully blunted, and Lee shifted troops from the right of his line to meet a new threat. The Battle of Antietam was, for all intents and purposes, over. On September 17, , two of America's greatest armies engaged in mortal combat at the .. The burden of caring for the wounded posed a logistical problem that. of Ghent, U.S. General Andrew Jackson achieves the greatest American victory of. Poster for current history video achieves the greatest American victory of the war at the Battle of New Orleans. In an address before a joint meeting of Congress, U.S. President Mussolini questions Hitler's plans. That suffer in exposure, let us meet. And question this most bloody piece of work,. To know it further. Fears and scruples shake us. In the great hand of God I.
Lee in trying to attack the states of the North in Maryland. And after the Battle of Antietam which was the bloodiest day in U. And that was a major turning point in the war as we've talked about in previous videos in that it led to the Emancipation Proclamation and was kind of the moment at which the nations of Europe cease to consider intervening on the side of the South.
So in the next few videos I want to talk about the later stages of the Civil War. So we get into and the South is doing relatively well here in Virginia, wins the Battle of Chancellorsville and now, nearly a year after Antietam in June and July ofRobert E. Lee decides that he is going to try again to invade the North.
Now he's several reasons for doing this. One, is that the war has been taking place largely in the South so it's summer, people are trying to harvest their crops and Lee wants to give the South a break so he wants to take the attention away from this area in Virginia where lots of fighting has happened and he wants to take the war up into the North.
And if the North is distracted by having to defend its own territory then it can't go on the offensive elsewhere as easily. So Lee's plan is to take the war to the North and Lee has another reason in his sleeve which is that he is really hoping that in the Election of which is coming up not too long after this period in mid, many people believe that Lincoln is going to be kicked out of office.
Now remember, that not a single American President has been elected to a second term or reelected since Andrew Jackson in So there's been a 30 year drought of two term presidents.
Lee has good reason to expect why Lincoln might not be reelected in and he thinks that maybe one of Lincoln's competitors in the Democratic Party, which will turn out to be one of his own former generals, George B.
McClellan will actually want to end the war and make peace with the South. So there's kind of a morale aspect to this. You can see that many of the things done in the Civil War and especially as we get into the later stages are designed at making one side or the other tired of being at war. Now you may wonder why I'm spending so much time talking about battles because most American History courses do not emphasize military history whatsoever.
But I think it's important to keep in mind in this war and in some earlier wars like the American Revolution the battles really determine the policy, right, because you can't make a decree like the way that Abraham Lincoln decreed the Emancipation Proclamation if you don't have the force of military power behind you. So winning battles, winning the war, those kind of victories give politicians the popular mandate they need to get things done.
So that's why I think that it's important to talk, at least a little bit, about the battles of the Civil War. Now obviously, Bull Run, Antietam, Gettysburg, and Appomattox were not the only battles of the Civil War, there were hundreds of battles of the Civil War but I've chosen these as particular turning points just to kind of give you a very brief overview of the way that military victories and defeats were trending.
Besides Louisiana French of both Creole and Acadian Cajun descent, the ranks were filled with men from all over the world. One study has shown that at least 24 nationalities were represented in these regiments, including Greeks, Italians, Mexicans, Brazilians and men from Martinique. The 12th South Carolina contained a number of Catawba Indians. But this new Army of the Potomac was an amalgam of a number of different commands. It was certainly not the same force that had nearly captured Richmond in the Peninsula campaign, nor was it the Army of the Potomac that would gain victory and fame at Gettysburg and other places.
While the XI Corps was kept back to guard Washington, the other two played key roles in opening the Battle of Antietam. The IX Corps was comprised of Maj.
The corps system was a Napoleonic innovation. The great emperor of France devised it as a miniature army containing three infantry divisions, artillery and cavalry. Such an organization provided simplification of command at the army level and flexibility in combat power. Up to the time of the Civil War, the U.
Army had been too small to make the corps system practical. But by the corps had become the building block of the huge forces being raised by both sides. The quality of command and combat efficiency made the Army of the Potomac, numbering about 86, a patchwork force. The average Union regiment at Antietam had men. Many of the new regiments had around men. Such was the case with the th Pennsylvania. When the th engaged Brig. Eighteen of these new regiments, about 15, men, became part of the army just prior to the march to Antietam.
Another 5, new recruits were added to the ranks of existing regiments as replacements.
The nine-month regiments, as well as the replacements, lacked training and hindered the army by slowing it down on the march. Their ignorance of drill and firearms proved fatal at the tactical level. Half of his corps commanders were new to that level of command, including I Corps commander Maj.
Excellent combat commanders could be found here, including Brig. John Gibbon, commander of the Iron Brigade; Maj. Meade, later the army commander; and Brig. Sumner was the oldest active corps commander in the Civil War. He had 43 years of experience in the Army, including several tours of duty in the West and distinguished service in the Mexican War.
He had led the II Corps in the Peninsula campaign, where he was wounded twice. But instead the iron dice of war were thrown, and luck was with the Confederates. Sumner led his 2nd Division to destruction in the so-called West Woods Massacre. His command was the largest on the field, with more than 15, men. Major General Israel Richardson led the 1st Division. His veteran units, such as the Irish Brigade, made possible the Union breakthrough at the Sunken Road. He was actively seeking additional troops and artillery to follow up on the breakthrough when an artillery shell mortally wounded him.
The 3rd Division was commanded by Brig. French, whose experience was as a brigade commander. Incredibly, this division had been put together on the march only 16 hours before the battle. Nine out of its 10 regiments had not seen any major combat.
Fitz John Porter, the V Corps commander, had great potential from the start. The New Englander ranked eighth in his West Point class of and won several brevets for gallantry in the Mexican War. Upon the withdrawal of the Army of the Potomac from the Peninsula, Porter and his corps were attached to the Army of Virginia just in time for the disastrous Second Manassas campaign.
There, he was blamed by Pope for failure to provide proper support and brought up on court-martial charges.
Battle of Antietam
Initially relieved of command, he was reinstated through the personal intercession of McClellan with President Lincoln. A third division, under Brig. Andrew Humphreys, was on the march to reinforce Porter, but arrived the day after the battle.
Its combat effectiveness was dubious, since the entire division was made up of nine-month regiments. William Franklin was also up on court-martial charges for disobedience at Second Manassas.
Battle of Antietam | Summary & Significance | misjon.info
Franklin had been trained at West Point as an engineer and graduated first in the class of As the VI Corps commander, he lacked the aggression needed for combat operations. Conversely, at Antietam he would unsuccessfully seek permission from McClellan to launch an attack against the Confederate left in the afternoon.
Most of his men would not be engaged in the battle. This unit returned to Virginia for Second Manassas and was augmented with Brig. Jesse Reno in charge of the latter command.
This rankled Burnside, and some historians believe it caused him to move sluggishly in his effort to take the stone bridge that now bears his name.
The IX Corps contained many combat-seasoned units, but it also had its share of green troops. Accordingly, one of these regiments, the 16th Connecticut, wilted when Confederate Maj. Ranking second in the West Point class ofhe spent his early military career constructing defenses of the Southern coast.
In the Mexican War he won several brevets for gallantry and occasionally led troops in combat. When the fighting broke out, he spent most of his time on garrison duty. This would be one of the few times he would ever lead men in battle, and the corps was the largest combat entity he had ever commanded. Mansfield did not survive his first large command. He was one of six general officers, three from each side, killed or mortally wounded at Antietam.
The XII Corps contained the largest component of nine-month regiments, five of them concentrated mostly in the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division. It was also the smallest corps in the army, fielding less than 8, men.
These apparent deficiencies were offset by the presence of Brig. Greene and his division — a seasoned command led by an experienced commander. With around 1, men, Greene held a pocket in the Confederate lines near the Dunker Church for more than two hours.
Battle of New Orleans
Unsupported and low on ammunition, he ultimately was forced to abandon his position. This was an army of combat veterans. Twenty-two units had been in five battles. Only around 21 percent of the regiments had fought in just one battle. In reality, it lasted 32 months following the U. Also confusing is the Battle of New Orleans, the largest of the war and a resounding U. The battle occurred in January, —two weeks after U.
News traveled slowly then. The War of may never merit a Tchaikovsky overture, but perhaps a new name would help rescue it from obscurity. Impressment May Have Been a Trumped-Up Charge One of the strongest impetuses for declaring war against Great Britain was the impressment of American seamen into the Royal Navy, a not uncommon act among navies at the time but one that incensed Americans nonetheless.
But how big a threat was impressment, really? An issue that could place the young nation as the aggrieved party could help; of the 19 senators who passed the declaration of waronly three were from New England and none of them were Federalists.
The rockets were British missiles called Congreves and looked a bit like giant bottle rockets. Imagine a long stick that spins around in the air, attached to a cylindrical canister filled with gunpowder, tar and shrapnel.