Energy Systems in Sport & Exercise | Jen Reviews
There are 3 energy systems within the body that provide energy to the working muscles. These are 2 seconds unless resynthesis of this molecule occurs. ATP can be relative contribution is essentially determined by the intensity and duration Energy system interplay refers to all 3 energy systems co-contributing to ATP. Is it important to be able to explain the chemical breakdown of the oxidative Krebs cycle or atp, adenosine triphosphate, energy systems, energy transport, atp transport Continuing effort must be fueled by the oxidative system at a lower intensity, all other The Glycolytic System – Moderate Power/Moderate Duration. Three exercise energy systems provide energy to your working muscles. changes depending on the specific intensity and duration of your exercise. the muscles (about 1 or 2 seconds worth from prior cellular respiration during rest) and its It is also referred to as the lactic acid system or the anaerobic glycolytic system.
The effort demand is low, but ATP in this system can be produced three ways: Krebs cycle Beta Oxidation.
The Krebs cycle is a sequence of chemical reactions that continues to oxidize the glucose that was initiated during glycolysis. Here is the problem: Through more chemical reactions in the electron transport chain, hydrogen combines with oxygen, water is produced, and acidity is prevented.
Notice this takes time due to the need of oxygen, which is why the oxidative energy takes a while and intensity of effort declines i. The Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain metabolize triglycerides stored fat and carbohydrates to produce ATP.
The breakdown of triglycerides is called lipolysis. The byproducts of lipolysis are glycerol and free fatty acids. However, before free fatty acids can enter the Krebs cycle they must enter the process of beta oxidation where a series of chemical reactions downgrades them to acA and hydrogen.
The acA now enters the Krebs cycle and fat is metabolized just like carbohydrates.
In Plain English Due to the time-line, the oxidative system provides energy much more slowly than the other two systems, but has an almost unlimited supply in your adipose sites - yeah, that stuff you can pinch! The oxidative system by itself is used primarily during complete rest and low-intensity activity. It can produce ATP through either fat fatty acids or carbohydrate glucose.
Unit 2 - Energy Systems and their application to training principles
Because fatty acids take more time to breakdown than glucose, more oxygen is needed for complete combustion. If efforts are intense and the cardiovascular system cannot supply oxygen quickly enough, carbohydrate must produce ATP. However, in very long duration activities i. The building blocks of protein - amino acids - can be either converted into glucose via gluconeogenisis or other sources used in the Krebs cycle, such as acA.
In order to extract the energy from the foods we eat and turn it into the chemical energy that our bodies can use, we have three separate energy production systems, these are the: The three energy systems work together in order to ensure there is a continuous and sufficient supply of energy for all our daily activities. Each system differentiates in the way they produce chemical energy ATP from different sources and at different speeds.Energy Systems
These systems are quicker at producing energy, however they do not last very long they fatigue quickly. The aerobic system on the other hand relies heavily on oxygen to synthesise ATP. Because the chemical processes that use oxygen to produce energy are more complex than the anaerobic processes, the aerobic system is slower at making energy, but it can keep making energy for a very long time without fatique. Why are the energy systems important?
The energy systems are what enable every cell, tissue and organ of our bodies to function and survive. Without sufficient energy being continuously supplied through the energy systems our bodies would literally shut down, cease to function and die!
Essentially the body is like a machine and like any machine it needs energy to power it.
For example a car without petrol in the tank is just a piece of metal that can't do anything. With fuel the car can come to life and drive you from 'A to B'. Understanding how the energy systems work and interact with each other will help ensure that you are advising the right type of fuels for your clients to consume, as well as designing and prescribing the correct type of training, and applying the variables sets, reps, rest intervals etc correctly to ensure your clients achieve their specific goals by design rather than accident.
The energy systems and fitness When you workout in the gym, go for a run or play football with your friends there are many body systems involved that work together in order for this to be possible. Since this process does not need oxygen to resynthesize ATP, it is anaerobic, or oxygen-independent. As the fastest way to resynthesize ATP, the phosphagen system is the predominant energy system used for all-out exercise lasting up to about 10 seconds.
However, since there is a limited amount of stored CP and ATP in skeletal muscles, fatigue occurs rapidly. Glycolysis Glycolysis is the predominant energy system used for all-out exercise lasting from 30 seconds to about 2 minutes and is the second-fastest way to resynthesize ATP.
During glycolysis, carbohydrate—in the form of either blood glucose sugar or muscle glycogen the stored form of glucose —is broken down through a series of chemical reactions to form pyruvate glycogen is first broken down into glucose through a process called glycogenolysis. For every molecule of glucose broken down to pyruvate through glycolysis, two molecules of usable ATP are produced Brooks et al.
Thus, very little energy is produced through this pathway, but the trade-off is that you get the energy quickly.
Once pyruvate is formed, it has two fates: Conversion to lactate occurs when the demand for oxygen is greater than the supply i. As a result of these changes, muscles lose their ability to contract effectively, and muscle force production and exercise intensity ultimately decrease.
The metabolic reactions that take place in the presence of oxygen are responsible for most of the cellular energy produced by the body. However, aerobic metabolism is the slowest way to resynthesize ATP. Oxygen, as the patriarch of metabolism, knows that it is worth the wait, as it controls the fate of endurance and is the sustenance of life. Given its location, the aerobic system is also called mitochondrial respiration.
When using carbohydrate, glucose and glycogen are first metabolized through glycolysis, with the resulting pyruvate used to form acetyl-CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle. Thus, the aerobic system produces 18 times more ATP than does anaerobic glycolysis from each glucose molecule.
Fat, which is stored as triglyceride in adipose tissue underneath the skin and within skeletal muscles called intramuscular triglycerideis the other major fuel for the aerobic system, and is the largest store of energy in the body.
When using fat, triglycerides are first broken down into free fatty acids and glycerol a process called lipolysis. The free fatty acids, which are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms, are transported to the muscle mitochondria, where the carbon atoms are used to produce acetyl-CoA a process called beta-oxidation. Following acetyl-CoA formation, fat metabolism is identical to carbohydrate metabolism, with acetyl-CoA entering the Krebs cycle and the electrons being transported to the electron transport chain to form ATP and water.