Earth, Sun and Moon - Universe Today
To understand how Solon would differ from Earth, we need to know how the Moon is affecting Earth today and, working back in time, deduce its effects over the. It is seen that full moon and new moon influence the sea tidal waves, effects the In some scenarios for the origin of life in primitive Earth, tidal effects are .. There have been speculations on the correlation of lunar phase with humans. Explain how movements of the Earth and Moon affect Earth's tides. Another effect of Earth's rotation is that we have a cycle of daylight and darkness.
The Earth rotates once on its axis about every 24 hours. If you were to look at Earth from the North Pole, it would be spinning counterclockwise. As the Earth rotates, observers on Earth see the Sun moving across the sky from east to west with the beginning of each new day. We often say that the Sun is "rising" or "setting", but actually it is the Earth's rotation that gives us the perception of the Sun rising up or setting over the horizon.
When we look at the Moon or the stars at night, they also seem to rise in the east and set in the west. Earth's rotation is also responsible for this.
As Earth turns, the Moon and stars change position in our sky. Earth's Day and Night[ edit ] Another effect of Earth's rotation is that we have a cycle of daylight and darkness approximately every 24 hours.
This is called a day. As Earth rotates, the side of Earth facing the Sun experiences daylight, and the opposite side facing away from the Sun experiences darkness or night time. Since the Earth completes one rotation in about 24 hours, this is the time it takes to complete one day-night cycle.
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- Earth, Sun and Moon
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As the Earth rotates, different places on Earth experience sunset and sunrise at a different time. As you move towards the poles, summer and winter days have different amounts of daylight hours in a day.
For example, in the Northern hemisphere, we begin summer on June At this point, the Earth's North Pole is pointed directly toward the Sun. Therefore, areas north of the equator experience longer days and shorter nights because the northern half of the Earth is pointed toward the Sun.
Since the southern half of the Earth is pointed away from the Sun at that point, they have the opposite effect—longer nights and shorter days. For people in the Northern hemisphere, winter begins on December At this point, it is Earth's South Pole that is tilted toward the Sun, and so there are shorter days and longer nights for those who are north of the equator.
Earth's Seasons[ edit ] It is a common misconception that summer is warm and winter is cold because the Sun is closer to Earth in the summer and farther away from it during the winter. Remember that seasons are caused by the This results in one part of the Earth being more directly exposed to rays from the Sun than the other part. The part tilted away from the Sun experiences a cool season, while the part tilted toward the Sun experiences a warm season.
Seasons change as the Earth continues its revolution, causing the hemisphere tilted away from or towards the Sun to change accordingly. When it is winter in the Northern hemisphere, it is summer in the Southern hemisphere, and vice versa.
The Earth's tilt on its axis leads to one hemisphere facing the Sun more than the other hemisphere and gives rise to seasons. Solar Eclipses[ edit ] Figure A solar eclipse occurs when the new moon passes directly between the Earth and the Sun Figure This casts a shadow on the Earth and blocks our view of the Sun. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow completely blocks the Sun Figure When only a portion of the Sun is out of view, it is called a partial solar eclipse.
Solar eclipses are rare events that usually only last a few minutes. That is because the Moon's shadow only covers a very small area on Earth and Earth is turning very rapidly. As the Sun is covered by the moon's shadow, it will actually get cooler outside.
How Earth and the Moon interact
Birds may begin to sing, and stars will become visible in the sky. During a solar eclipse, the corona and solar prominences can be seen. Photo of a total solar eclipse.
During a solar eclipse, never look directly towards the sun even if the sun cannot be seen, as its harmful rays can damage your eyes badly. Always use special glasses which filter out the harmful sun rays when seeing a solar eclipse. A Lunar Eclipse[ edit ] A lunar eclipse occurs when the full moon moves through the shadow of the Earth Figure How did the moon form?
There are various theories about how the moon was created, but recent evidence indicates it formed when a huge collision tore a chunk of Earth away. The leading explanation for how the moon formed was that a giant impact knocked off the raw ingredients for the moon off the primitive molten Earth and into orbit.
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Scientists have suggested the impactor was roughly 10 percent the mass of Earth, about the size of Mars. Because Earth and the moon are so similar in composition, researchers have concluded that the impact must have occurred about 95 million years after the formation of the solar system, give or take 32 million years.
The solar system is roughly 4. New studies in gave further weight to this theory, based on simulations of planetary orbits in the early solar system, as well as newly uncovered differences in the abundance of the element tungsten detected in the Earth and the moon. Although the large impact theory dominates the scientific community's discussion, there are several other ideas for the moon's formation.
These include that the Earth captured the moon, that the moon fissioned out of the Earth, or that Earth may even have stolen the moon from Venusaccording to a recent theory. Internal structure The moon very likely has a very small corejust 1 to 2 percent of the moon's mass and roughly miles km wide. It likely consists mostly of iron, but may also contain large amounts of sulfur and other elements.
Its rocky mantle is about miles 1, km thick and made up of dense rocks rich in iron and magnesium. Magmas in the mantle made their way to the surface in the past and erupted volcanically for more than a billion years — from at least four billion years ago to fewer than three billion years past. The crust on top averages some 42 miles 70 km deep. The outermost part of the crust is broken and jumbled due to all the large impacts it has received, a shattered zone that gives way to intact material below a depth of about 6 miles 9.
Surface composition Like the four inner planetsthe moon is rocky. It's pockmarked with craters formed by asteroid impacts millions of years ago. Because there is no weather, the craters have not eroded. The average composition of the lunar surface by weight is roughly 43 percent oxygen, 20 percent silicon, 19 percent magnesium, 10 percent iron, 3 percent calcium, 3 percent aluminum, 0. Orbiters have found traces of water on the lunar surface that may have originated from deep underground.
They have also located hundreds of pits that could house explorers who remain on the moon long-term. Our Changing Moon ] Ongoing observations from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO showed that water is more abundant on slopes facing the lunar south polealthough scientists do caution that the water quantity is comparable to an extremely dry desert.
Meanwhile, a study suggested the moon's interior could be abundant in watertoo. Uncle Milton Moon in My Room. And without much of an atmosphere, heat is not held near the surface, so temperatures vary wildly. Daytime temperatures on the sunny side of the moon reach degrees F C ; on the dark side it gets as cold as minus F minus C.
Average distance from Earth: To a much smaller extent, tides also occur in lakes, the atmosphere, and within Earth's crust.
High tides are when water bulges upward, and low tides are when water drops down. High tide results on the side of the Earth nearest the moon due to gravity, and it also happens on the side farthest from the moon due to the inertia of water. By firing lasers from Earth to the Moon, off the corner reflectors, and back again, astronomers measured the round-trip time and, hence, the distance to the Moon.
Repeating the experiment over several years, they confirmed Darwin's prediction. The Moon is receding at 2 inches per year. To understand why the Moon is fleeing from us, imagine for a moment that neither Earth nor Moon rotated and that the Sun's tidal effect could be ignored. In this case, one of the two high ocean tides would be directly between Earth and Moon, while the other would be on the opposite side of Earth from the Moon see figure 2a.
Figure 2 An astronaut's view of ocean tides. This is a much-exaggerated view of the tides as you might see them if you could fly high enough above Earth and Moon. The imbalanced gravitational pull of the Moon causes the oceans to be slightly non-spherical, creating two high tides and two low tides. Of course, the actual tides would be much smaller than shown in these two diagrams.
Suppose, for the moment, that Earth did not rotate a. In this case, the two high tides would lie on the straight line from the center of the Moon to the center of Earth.
High School Earth Science/The Sun and the Earth-Moon System
The gravitational force would be directly from the center of the Moon to the center of Earth. Now take a look at what happens on the rotating Earth b. Because Earth rotates faster once every 24 hours than the Moon revolves once every 29 daysthe high tides are not aligned as above.
Instead, the rotation pulls the tides around, so that the high tide closest to the Moon outpaces the Moon.