Teacher and student relationship 2014 dodge

An effect of teacher-student relationships on children's peer acceptance with their teachers on their peer relationships (De Laet et al., ; Hughes .. Asher and Dodge demonstrated that peer dislike scores obtained from. A Texas high-school teacher who bedded a year-old student dodged jail time February 23, | am Nikki Scherwitz, 25, will get 10 years' probation in exchange for pleading guilty to an inappropriate relationship with the pupil. AMARILLO, Texas - Reports of Texas teachers having inappropriate relationships with students are on track to beat last year's record total.

EBPs are individual reflections regarding an external environment with negative external behaviors Liu, Researchers have adopted different standards for classifying EBPs. For example, consider two dimensions: Based on individual behaviors, Cai and Zhou argued that EBPs should be divided into hyperactivity, aggression, and conduct problems. In contrast, IBPs are negative moods and emotions that lead to emotional disorder, including depression, anxiety, withdrawal, and guilt Zanh—Waxler et al.

Highlighting these definitions of behavior problems clarifies various concepts' theoretical boundaries that determine the nature, direction, and veracity of research inquiries. Researchers used different indicators of EBPs. Thus, in accordance with these previous studies, this study will consider delinquency, aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct problems as indicators of EBPs.

TSRs are an important component of interpersonal communication ability and social adaptability. Specifically, positive indicators of affective TSRs comprise closeness, support, liking, warmth, and trust. In contrast, negative indicators comprise conflict, anger, and dislike.

According to stage—environment fit theory, individual development requires an interpersonal relationship that has trust, support, caring, self-expression, self-choice, and self-determination; in cases where. A teacher who did not provide these interpersonal relationships and opportunities created an environmental mismatch with individual development, thus leading to students showing EBPs Wang, ; van Lier et al.

Moreover, many empirical studies have found that positive indicators of TSRs were negatively correlated with students' EBPs Gest et al.

teacher and student relationship 2014 dodge

However, correlations varied across studies. To resolve this issue, several researchers have summarized research results with reviews Baker et al.

Their limitations include convenience samples, various sample sizes, or ignoring moderators, which led to inconsistencies and low reliability. Researchers used different indicators of EBPs. Thus, in accordance with these previous studies, this study will consider delinquency, aggression, hyperactivity, and conduct problems as indicators of EBPs.

TSRs are an important component of interpersonal communication ability and social adaptability. Specifically, positive indicators of affective TSRs comprise closeness, support, liking, warmth, and trust.

In contrast, negative indicators comprise conflict, anger, and dislike. According to stage—environment fit theory, individual development requires an interpersonal relationship that has trust, support, caring, self-expression, self-choice, and self-determination; in cases where.

A teacher who did not provide these interpersonal relationships and opportunities created an environmental mismatch with individual development, thus leading to students showing EBPs Wang, ; van Lier et al. Moreover, many empirical studies have found that positive indicators of TSRs were negatively correlated with students' EBPs Gest et al. However, correlations varied across studies.

teacher and student relationship 2014 dodge

To resolve this issue, several researchers have summarized research results with reviews Baker et al. Their limitations include convenience samples, various sample sizes, or ignoring moderators, which led to inconsistencies and low reliability. Our review of past empirical studies showed that many effect sizes were heterogeneous, suggesting that moderating factors might account for different links between affective TSRs and students' EBPs.

Thus, we hypothesized that one or more variables may moderate the effect sizes of the correlation between affective TSRs and students' EBPs, such as differences in students' cultures, ages, genders, and the report types of EBPs. First, we examine whether students' culture as a latent variable moderates the link between affective TSRs and students' EBPs Chang et al. Baker found a moderate correlation between closeness and students' EBPs among Western students; however, Lywhose sample included Eastern students, found a weak correlation between the two factors.

Many studies found a strong correlation between conflict and students' EBPs among Western students Doumen et al.

Texas on record-setting pace for inappropriate teacher-student relationships

Thus, in accordance with these findings, this study tests whether the correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs for Western students is stronger than that for Eastern students, and whether the correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs for Western students is weaker than for Eastern students.

For example, previous studies indicated that positive indicators for affective TSRs and students' EBPs varied among students in kindergarten lower primary grades LPGand higher primary grades Silver et al. Raters with different ages, standpoints, values, and degrees of understanding a student might rate his or her EBPs inconsistently Van Lier et al.

Moreover, several studies have found that different raters might account for the lack of coherence in research on the link between affective TSRs and students' EBPs. For example, some previous studies have relied on EBPs rated by students, which were only weakly related to positive indicators of affective TSRs Troop-Gordon and Kopp, ; Li et al.

In contrast, other researchers found that student EBPs rated by teachers were strongly related to negative indicators of affective TSRs Palermo et al. Female students tend to have more affective TSRs than male students do Spilt et al.

  • Teacher-Student Relationship and Peer Disliking and Liking across Grades 1–4

As a result, gender might influence the correlation between positive or negative indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs. Several empirical studies have showed gender differences in the link between indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs, such as closeness, support, and warmth Ostrov and Crick, ; Spilt et al.

Indexed keywords primarily included terms reflecting affective TSRs relationship scloseness, warmth, support, empathy, trust, sensitivity, conflict, negativity, and anger and students' EBPs behavior problems, externalizing, aggression, conduct problem, hyperactivity, and oppositional. When articles could not be found online, we obtained full-text versions of articles from libraries. All articles obtained were written in English.

Texas on record-setting pace for inappropriate teacher-student relationships - CBS News

We used inclusion and exclusion criteria to analyze and filter the collected studies. Literature Exclusion Criteria We included articles based on the following criteria: Table 1 summarizes the studies included in the Meta-Analysis. Studies included in the meta-analysis. Coding Study To facilitate meta-analysis, feature coding was conducted on 57 articles. We considered the following variables: The following criteria guided the coding procedure: When coding was complete, based on principles of meta-analysis Lipsey and Wilson,effect sizes between affective TSRs and students' EBPs were calculated for each sample.

A fixed effects model calculated the homogeneity test and mean effect. Averaged weighted within- and between-inverse variance weights correlation coefficients of independent samples were used to compute mean effect sizes.

Texas teacher dodges jail, gets probation for sex with student

Moderators were decided by the homogeneity test, which revealed variance in effect sizes between different samples' characteristics. Of the recruited children, The participants Fifty-nine percent of participants were eligible for free or reduced lunch.

The mean broad reading and math age-standardized achievement scores on the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement were Of these participants, had complete information on the five clustering variables. Participants with and without complete data did not differ on the five clustering variables at Year 3, nor on reading and math achievement and behavioral engagement scores at Years 2, 4, 5, and 6 after alpha adjustment for multiple tests.

The overall rate of missingness for all 12 analysis variables was Normality of study variables was examined. Based on the equal pattern of the participants with and without complete data on all demographic and study variables, and to maintain the same sample across outcomes, missing data for the participants were imputed using an Estimation-Maximization EM algorithm estimation method in conjunction with MCMC augmentation method within the PROC MI procedure in SAS 9.

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This test was administered each year or until the child was assessed as more proficient in English for two consecutive years. Items on the NRI assess six forms of social support affection, admiration, intimacy, satisfaction, nurturance, and reliable alliance and conflict in the teacher-student relationship. In individual interviews, children were asked to indicate on a 5-point Likert-type scale the level of support 16 items or conflict 6 items in their relationships with their teacher.

An exploratory factor analysis on half of third-grade participants randomly selected from the larger study revealed three factors: Warmth 10 itemsIntimacy 6 itemsand Conflict 6 items. Teacher ratings of teacher-student relationship The 22 items on the child version of the NRI were rephrased so that teachers reported on a 5-point Likert-type scale their provision of support to the student and level of conflict in their relationship.

Warmth 13 itemsIntimacy 3 items and Conflict 6 items. The difference in factor structure between the children and teacher versions is due to the fact that three items from the Nurturance subscale of the NRI load on the Intimacy factor of the Child version and on the Warmth factor of the Teacher version.

Consent for participation in the peer-nomination procedure was requested from parents of all children in classrooms in which study participants were enrolled. Only children with consent to participate provided peer nominations; however, all children in the class were eligible to be nominated. For this procedure, students were asked to name as few or as many classmates as they wished who best fit the following description: They like to talk to their teachers, and their teachers enjoy spending time with them.

What kids in your class are like this? An advantage of peer nominations is that scores reflect the perspectives of multiple members of a peer group versus a single rater. Cluster Validation Measures Teacher-rated conduct problem and emotional symptoms Teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ; Goodman,a item screening measure for psychopathology that has been translated into 67 languages and used throughout the world Youth in Mind, Each item is rated on a scale from 0 not true to 2 certainly true.

The SDQ includes five scales comprised of 5 items each. The math and reading scales consist of 5 items each. Scores on reading and math scales are significantly correlated with actual achievement Wigfield et al. Specifically, children were asked to respond by pointing on a thermometer numbered 0 to The end point and midpoint of each scale were also labeled with a verbal descriptor of the meaning of that scale point, e.