Ancient Egyptian religion - Wikipedia
Architecture of ancient Egypt, one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and. In particular, the ruins of tombs and temples have provided a valuable record of Egyptian life. The Egyptians were extremely religious, and their belief in life after . Free Essay: Egyptian Art and Religious Influences Samantha L. Burgos and later an actual figure in relation was found in the tomb of Seti.
There the royal mummy rested in a great stone coffin.
Ancient Egyptian Art and Architecture | Scholastic ART | misjon.info
The temples were built separately on the edge of the desert, facing the Nile. Even today their ruins are a beautiful sight. The most beautiful of these is the temple of Deir el-Bahri. It was built about by the famous Queen Hatshepsut. A series of terraces was surrounded by colonnades and connected by ramps. This temple was built entirely of fine limestone. In contrast, the nearby temple of Ramses II was built about entirely of sandstone--a coarse material that is easy to work with.
The latest—and best preserved—of these temples was constructed for Ramses III about Known as Medinet Habu, it is really a group of buildings and includes a palace, smaller temples, and houses for priests. It was surrounded by a great brick wall. The temple itself had two great courts that led to a dimly lit hall completely filled with columns.
Behind the hall, which was called a hypostyle hall, was the sanctuary where the statue of the god was placed. This dark, innermost section of the temple was open only to the king and the priests. Across the Nile at Karnak the temple of Amun, the king of the gods, was rebuilt. It was enlarged into the largest temple ever known.
Built mostly of sandstone, it was not constructed according to a fixed plan. Instead it was added to and changed by almost every king during the New Kingdom. Throughout the period Egyptian architects worked on a large scale.
A long avenue of sandstone sphinxes connected the great temple at Karnak to a much smaller temple at Luxor, a few miles away. The most spectacular building of the age is the famous temple of Abu Simbel, cut entirely from the rock. It was built by Ramses II about Four huge seated statues of the pharaoh, each nearly 70 feet 21 meters high, were carved in front of the temple.
The inside plan of the temple copied the design of the usual Egyptian temple, on a smaller scale. Private or nonroyal tombs of the New Kingdom were built all over the country. The major ones of the nobility were at Thebes and were rock-cut. They are more interesting for their decoration—reliefs and paintings--than for their architecture. As in all periods, the private homes were built of mud and then whitewashed.
They were surrounded by gardens with pools of water. Sculpture and Painting Much sculpture has survived from the New Kingdom. No one knows the names of the artists because Egyptian artists never signed their works. King Amenhotep III was a great patron of the arts.
Two gigantic statues, called the Colossi of Memnon, on the west side of the Nile at Thebes mark the site of his mortuary temple. The statues, which show the king seated on his throne, are more than 60 feet 18 meters tall. But the king was not interested only in erecting huge monuments.
The art of his reign is remarkable most of all for its elegance and variety. Egyptian art was becoming more realistic, moving away from the standard ways of representing the human form. For example, a sculpture done late in Amenhotep's rule shows the king in foreign dress. Also, for the first time in the long history of Egyptian art, certain flaws of the ruler's body are clearly depicted. He is shown as a plump, aging man. Instead of worshiping many gods, Akhenaten worshiped Aten as the only god of Egypt.
His belief may have had something to do with the revolution in Egyptian art. The statues of Akhenaten made early in his reign portrayed him with a long, thin face and a generally weak body. It was a realistic--and shocking--way to represent the god-king of Egypt.
His queen, Nefertiti, and his many daughters were also shown in this true-to-life and unflattering style. A group of heads—some made of plaster—was found there in the studio of a sculptor. They were not engraved with names, but some of them were royal portraits.
Among them was a famous limestone portrait of Nefertiti. In these heads the individual features of the person were shown. The great contribution of the brief period of Amarna art was the development of portraiture. After the death of Akhenaten, rulers went back to the less personal and less realistic style of sculpture.
Relief sculpture in the New Kingdom shows great quality and originality. Many new subjects were introduced. For example, one temple relief depicts a voyage to Punt, with carvings of the incense trees, animals, and people of that distant land.
Art and Religion in Ancient Egypt
In the same temple and also at Luxor, we find scenes of the birth of the king. Lively and long reliefs of the celebration of certain religious festivals can also be seen in temples. Painting was more often used in tombs than relief sculpture. Painting in royal tombs was chiefly limited to outline drawings of religious rites. It was rather in the tombs of wealthy noblemen that the best pictures were painted. As in earlier decorations, figures were painted in rows, one above the other.
At the beginning of the period the figures were painted in bright colors on a sky-blue background. Later in the New Kingdom, as the style of painting grew freer and more natural, neutral or light-gray backgrounds were used in the tomb paintings. A very important development took place in temple relief sculpture. To glorify the king, the courtyard walls were covered with complicated battle and hunting scenes. The large figures were brightly painted against white backgrounds.
The Late Periods B. The centuries following the close of the New Kingdom 11th to 8th centuries produced little beyond a weak continuation of New Kingdom traditions. Egypt was divided into two or more nations much of this time.
This decline ended suddenly in the late 8th century with the Kushite conquest of Egypt. The Kushites had come into Egypt from the south and had long been under Egyptian influence.
A revival of the arts took place in Thebes in the 7th century. Not much of the Kushite architecture survives in Egypt, but architecture in the Egyptian style survives in the Kushite homeland in the Sudan. There the pyramid was again used as the royal tomb. These late pyramids were midgets compared with the earlier Egyptian ones.Ancient Egypt - Ancient Egyptian Religion And Culture Documentary ♥
Only in the New Kingdom did professional priesthood become widespread, although most lower-ranking priests were still part-time. All were still employed by the state, and the pharaoh had final say in their appointments. In the political fragmentation of the Third Intermediate Period c.
Outside the temple were artisans and other laborers who helped supply the temple's needs, as well as farmers who worked on temple estates. All were paid with portions of the temple's income. Large temples were therefore very important centers of economic activity, sometimes employing thousands of people.
Religion in Ancient Egypt - Crystalinks
Among the latter were coronation ceremonies and the sed festivala ritual renewal of the pharaoh's strength that took place periodically during his reign. Some were performed daily, while others took place annually or on rarer occasions. In it, a high-ranking priest, or occasionally the pharaoh, washed, anointed, and elaborately dressed the god's statue before presenting it with offerings. Afterward, when the god had consumed the spiritual essence of the offerings, the items themselves were taken to be distributed among the priests.
These festivals often entailed actions beyond simple offerings to the gods, such as reenactments of particular myths or the symbolic destruction of the forces of disorder.
Commoners gathered to watch the procession and sometimes received portions of the unusually large offerings given to the gods on these occasions. These animals were selected based on specific sacred markings which were believed to indicate their fitness for the role. Some of these cult animals retained their positions for the rest of their lives, as with the Apis bull worshipped in Memphis as a manifestation of Ptah.
Other animals were selected for much shorter periods. These cults grew more popular in later times, and many temples began raising stocks of such animals from which to choose a new divine manifestation.
Ancient Egyptian religion
Millions of mummified catsbirds, and other creatures were buried at temples honoring Egyptian deities. Oracles[ edit ] The Egyptians used oracles to ask the gods for knowledge or guidance. Egyptian oracles are known mainly from the New Kingdom and afterward, though they probably appeared much earlier. People of all classes, including the king, asked questions of oracles, and, especially in the late New Kingdom their answers could be used to settle legal disputes or inform royal decisions.
Other methods included interpreting the behavior of cult animals, drawing lots, or consulting statues through which a priest apparently spoke. The means of discerning the god's will gave great influence to the priests who spoke and interpreted the god's message. These included birth, because of the danger involved in the process, and namingbecause the name was held to be a crucial part of a person's identity. The most important of these ceremonies were those surrounding death, because they ensured the soul's survival beyond it.
These included the interpretation of dreams, which could be seen as messages from the divine realm, and the consultation of oracles. The monumental Great Sphinx at Giza, constructed for Khafre a 4th dynasty pharaohclearly shows this style. A portrait of the king is placed upon the body of a lion or panther, which shows his connection with the heavens, as the skies were represented earlier by a panther Nutthe sky goddess, is shown arched over the heavens on all fours like her animal predecessor.
Another deity that is shown often is Horusthe falcon god, who is seen protecting the head of Khafre in his life-size portrait. Most of these portrait statues were found in the tombs of the kings, as they were to provide a place for the king's ka, or soul, after his death. During the Middle Kingdom about B. Many of these depict scenes from daily life as well as those of the afterlife.
The exacting details of Egyptian painting were responsible for the regularity of the subjects. Objects were drawn at their most characteristic angle, and specific canons of proportion were used for figures. For both painting and relief carving, sketches were drawn over a graph on the surface and had to be approved by a trained designer before work could begin. Small crafted objects found in tombs include faience a glass paste used as a glaze animal figurines and intricate jewelry made from gold and precious stones.
Larger sculptures found from this era do not have the same rigidity of the Old Kingdom, but are more realistic and reflect some of the personality of the subject. In the New Kingdom circa B. Worship of the god Amun had become widespread, and it was with this deity that the pharaoh identified himself. When Amenhotep IV came to the throne in the 18th Dynasty, he managed to completely reform Egypt's religious, artistic, and political ideas by establishing what Egyptologists now believe was the first monotheistic religion- worship of Aten the solar disk as supreme being.
He also changed his own name to Akhenaten "on the behalf of Aten" and saw himself as the literal son of the sun.