Blood Pressure in Relation to Age and Frailty
How does your blood pressure change with aging? Age is a known risk factor for high blood pressure. In general, blood pressure rises as people get older. Background Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cognitive impairment, although the relationship between hypertension and cognitive. COCHRANE AL, COX JG, JARMAN TF. A follow-up chest x-ray survey in the Rhondda Fach. I. Pulmonary tuberculosis. Br Med J. Feb 12;1()–
Body mass index in kilograms per meters squared was calculated using weight and height. Using the National Death Index indeath certificates were obtained for the respondents who died before the end of The deaths were classified by trained nosologists using the first revision of the Ninth International Classification of Diseases in conjunction with the Automated Classification of Medical Entities Decision Tables to manually select underlying cause of death.
Statistical Analysis Analyses were stratified a priori by age at baseline as 39 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 84 years. Means or proportions of baseline variables were computed for each group. We examined the BP distributions in each group, along with stratum-specific Spearman correlation coefficients for the four measures of BP.
Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of individual and combined BP parameters and the risk of CVD death. For each age group, BP parameters were added to the multivariable model as follows: This strategy was based on a prior analysis limited to randomized PHS participants.
Blood Pressure in Relation to Age and Frailty
Similarly, mean CRVE decreased by 3. Mean AVR decreased with increasing age, both in men and women, up to age 70 to 79 years Fig. In women aged 80 years or older, mean AVR was unchanged but increased by 0.
Mean AVR was consistently higher in women than in men across the entire age spectrum of our study group Fig.
Mean CRAE decreased by 1. AVR decreased by 0. Further adjustment for smoking and BMI, in addition to age and sex, did not alter the inverse linear relationships between retinal vessel widths and BP. These inverse relationships remained after further adjustment for blood glucose level, in addition to age, sex, and smoking data not shown.
Discussion Using the same protocol and methods as the ARIC study, our findings in this general older Australian population were very similar to those from the U. Retinal vessel diameters narrowed as age BP increased. This inverse linear relationship was similar in men and women and persisted after adjusting for possible confounders, including age, sex, BP, smoking, blood sugar levels, and BMI.
Blood pressure goals may need to change with age - Harvard Health Blog - Harvard Health Publishing
Possible selection bias due to the exclusion of participants who either had no fundus photographs taken or had ungradable photographs was considered. Almost identical age- and sex-adjusted MABP in the excluded subgroup of persons and the study group suggests that substantial bias is unlikely to have occurred by excluding these participants.
Decreasing AVR was found with increasing age or BP, because arteriolar diameters decreased to a greater extent than venular diameters. Retinal veins are thought to have relatively constant caliber unless there is a complicating condition such as raised intracranial pressure associated with papilledema, ischemia associated with diabetic retinopathy or central or local retinal venous obstruction.
This may be explained by random variation due to the smaller number of subjects in the older age group. Survival bias could also explain this finding. Men with small AVR may have died earlier, and those who continued to live to more than 80 years of age could have been more likely to have large AVR.
No comparison can be made with the ARIC study in this aspect, because their participants were younger 50 to 71 years than our sample. In the ARIC study average age was In our study group average age, In the older group, the rigidity of the arteriolar wall caused by age-related involutional sclerosis of retinal arterioles may prevent the same degree of narrowing that is seen in younger persons.
A possible explanation of such gender difference is the vasodilating effect of estrogen. Estrogen, through a receptor-mediated pathway, may upregulate endothelial expression of the nitric oxide synthase gene, leading to increased nitric oxide production and resultant arteriolar dilatation. Further investigation of the relationships between retinal vessel diameters and hormonal parameters in older women in the BMES is now underway.
This may also suggest that the vasodilating effects of estrogen are greater at high BP levels. There are several potential limitations in evaluating retinal vessel calibers by using our study methods. First, on color photographs, the column of blood cells was surrounded by a transparent sleeve of plasma; therefore, it was the column of formed blood cells rather than the actual internal diameters of the vessel lumen that was measured. Over time these weaken vessels can break, and blood will leak into the brain.
The area of the brain that is being fed by these broken vessels start to die, and this will cause a stroke. Additionally, if a blot clot blocks a narrowed artery, blood ceases to flow and a stroke will occur.
Symptoms of a stroke include sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body, confusion, trouble speaking, or seeing, sudden severe headache.
If you or someone with you has one or more of these signs, don't delay, call Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Your diet is high in saturated fats. You consume more than two alcoholic drinks per day. You have high blood pressure or need medication to control your blood pressure. You have high cholesterol levels or need medication to control your cholesterol level.
You exercise less than 30 minutes per day - Inactivity puts a person at higher risk of developing heart disease. You are overweight - Persons that have an excess of body fat are at a higher risk than persons of normal weight. You are over 40 or a post-menopausal woman - Risk of heart disease increases over the age of 45 in males, over 55 in females. Family History - Children of parents that developed heart disease before the age of 55 have a higher risk of developing heart disease.