# Power factor and current relationship status

### How does a Low Power Factor draw more current? - Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange

The three main components in an AC circuit which can affect the relationship between the voltage and current waveforms, and therefore their phase difference, . Is there any connection between a system's power factor and the amount of real power When the load is perfectly inductive current lags behind voltage by 90'. Reactive Power. We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power, yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives.

### Understanding the Power Factor | misjon.info

This decreases the efficiency of the equipment. Overheating of the equipment: I2R losses produce heat Joule's law. Hence, the temperature rise will be relatively more for low PF which will further increase the stress on the insulation. Low power factor causes higher load current.

## Understanding the Power Factor

If the load current increases, the size of the conductor required will also increase. This will further increase the conductor cost. Machines are not rated in kW while manufacturing because the power factor of supply is unknown. Instead, they are rated in kVA. If size increases, the cost also increases. It is defined as the difference between sending and receiving end voltage per unit sending end voltage.

When power is transferred from one end to another, the voltage drops due to several reasons. This voltage drop should be within permissible limits. Hence, the voltage regulation at low power factor is poor.

Active and Reactive power Power Transfer Capacity: Active and reactive power both are transferred over the line together. The problem with this is that the rectifier is a non-linear device, so the input current is highly non-linear.

That means that the input current has energy at harmonics of the frequency of the voltage. This presents a particular problem for the power companies, because they cannot compensate for the harmonic current by adding simple capacitors or inductors, as they could for the reactive power drawn by a linear load.

Many jurisdictions are beginning to legally require power factor correction for all power supplies above a certain power level.

## True, Reactive, and Apparent Power

Regulatory agencies such as the EU have set harmonic limits as a method of improving power factor. Declining component cost has hastened implementation of two different methods. The filter consists of capacitors or inductors, and makes a non-linear device look more like a linear load. An example of passive PFC is a valley-fill circuit.

A disadvantage of passive PFC is that it requires larger inductors or capacitors than an equivalent power active PFC circuit. Active power factor correction can be single-stage or multi-stage.

In the case of a switched-mode power supply, a boost converter is inserted between the bridge rectifier and the main input capacitors.

The boost converter attempts to maintain a constant DC bus voltage on its output while drawing a current that is always in phase with and at the same frequency as the line voltage. Another switched-mode converter inside the power supply produces the desired output voltage from the DC bus.

This approach requires additional semiconductor switches and control electronics, but permits cheaper and smaller passive components. It is frequently used in practice. For a three-phase SMPS, the Vienna rectifier configuration may be used to substantially improve the power factor. That feature is particularly welcome in power supplies for laptops. Dynamic PFC[ edit ] Dynamic power factor correction DPFCsometimes referred to as "real-time power factor correction," is used for electrical stabilization in cases of rapid load changes e.

### Power factor - Wikipedia

DPFC is useful when standard power factor correction would cause over or under correction. Vector Analysis Vectors are simply another way to draw sine waves.

- Understanding Power Factor and why it’s important
- Confusion in relation between Frequency, current and Power factor relation
- Power factor

You'll see its not difficult and actually makes things easier. Vectors, as used in this discussion, are representations of a sine wave of current relative to a sine wave of voltage. Instead of showing the current as a sine wave, the vector shows it as a straight line that points in a direction.

The length of the line represents the RMS value of the current remember, peak value x 0. The direction of the arrow is simple. Its like a compass, 0 to degrees.

Remember, this is the offset. The compass starts at 3 o'clock and rotates counter-clockwise in a full circle. We establish that the voltage's sine wave peaks at 0 degrees this is the reference.

Lets look at cases where the currents leads or lags voltage by 45 degrees.