mark antony & julius caesar relationship by Felix Ruthmann on Prezi
Explore the life of Mark Antony, friend of Julius Caesar and would-be emperor of Rome, at misjon.info Learn about his relationship with. Mark Antony's motivation is to avenge Caesar and to kill the conspirators is to; He also doesn't want to let Brutus and Cassius get away with the. Julius Caesar was considerably older than Mark Antony, and their relationship was somewhat like that of a father and son. Shakespeare makes it clear than.
Antony, however, managed to trick Libo into pursuing some decoy ships, causing Libo's squadron to be trapped and attacked. Most of Libo's fleet managed to escape, but several of his troops were trapped and captured. The Battle of Pharsalus: Antony commanded the left wing of Caesar's army. During the Greek campaign, Plutarch records Antony was Caesar's top general and second to only him in reputation.
With food sources running low, Caesar, in July, ordered a nocturnal assault on Pompey's camp, but Pompey's larger forces pushed back the assault. Though an indecisive result, the victory was a tactical win for Pompey. Pompey, however, did not order a counter-assault on Caesar's camp, allowing Caesar to retreat unhindered.
Caesar would later remark the civil war would have ended that day if Pompey had only attacked him. Assuming a defensive position at the plain of PharsalusCaesar's army prepared for pitched battle with Pompey's, which outnumbered his own two to one. Though the civil war had not ended at Pharsulus, the battle marked the pinnacle of Caesar's power and effectively ended the Republic.
After Pompey's defeat, most of the Senate defected to Caesar, including many of the soldiers who had fought under Pompey. The young Cleopatra became Caesar's mistress and bore him a son, Caesarion. Caesar's actions further strengthened Roman control over the already Roman-dominated kingdom.
The chief cause of his political challenges concerned debt forgiveness. One of the Tribunes for 47 BC, Publius Cornelius Dolabellaa former general under Pompey, proposed a law which would have canceled all outstanding debts. Antony opposed the law for political and personal reasons: When Dolabella sought to enact the law by force and seized the Roman ForumAntony responded by unleashing his soldiers upon the assembled mass.
Antony's violent reaction had caused Rome to fall into a state of anarchy.
Caesar sought to mend relations with the populist leader; he was elected to a third term as Consul for 46 BC, but proposed the Senate should transfer the consulship to Dolabella.
When Antony protested, Caesar was forced to withdraw the motion out of shame. Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as Consul instead. After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra and their son to Rome. Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule.
When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over.
During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia. Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia. Assassination of Julius Caesar Ides of March[ edit ] Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long. Caesar planned a new invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name.
The reconciliation came soon after Antony rejected an offer by Gaius Treboniusone of Caesar's generals, to join a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. The festival was held in honor of Lupathe she-wolf who suckled the infant orphans Romulus and Remusthe founders of Rome.
The Timeline of the Life of Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony)
Caesar had enacted a number of constitutional reforms which centralized effectively all political powers within his own hands. He was granted further honors, including a form of semi-official cultwith Antony as his high priest. Caesar's political rivals feared these reforms were his attempts at transforming the Republic into an open monarchy.
During the festival's activities, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diademwhich Caesar refused.
The event presented a powerful message: By refusing it, Caesar demonstrated he had no intention of making himself King of Rome. Antony's motive for such actions is not clear and it is unknown if he acted with Caesar's prior approval or on his own. A group of Senators resolved to kill Caesar to prevent him from seizing the throne.
Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot, winning over the chief assassins to the cause of tyrannicideBrutus, with his family's history of deposing Rome's kings, became their leader. Antony was supposed to attend with Caesar, but was waylaid at the door by one of the plotters and prevented from intervening.
According to the Greek historian Plutarchas Caesar arrived at the Senate, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico.
According to Roman historian Eutropiusaround 60 or more men participated in the assassination. Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from the blood loss attributable to multiple stab wounds. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome.
The conspirators, who styled themselves the Liberatores "The Liberators"had barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill for their own safety. Though they believed Caesar's death would restore the Republic, Caesar had been immensely popular with the Roman middle and lower classeswho became enraged upon learning a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion.
Antony, as the sole Consul, soon took the initiative and seized the state treasury. CalpurniaCaesar's widow, presented him with Caesar's personal papers and custody of his extensive property, clearly marking him as Caesar's heir and leader of the Caesarian faction. Lepidus wanted to storm the Capitol, but Antony preferred a peaceful solution as a majority of both the Liberators and Caesar's own supporters preferred a settlement over civil war.
Caesar's assassins would be pardoned of their crimes and, in return, all of Caesar's actions would be ratified. Antony also agreed to accept the appointment of his rival Dolabella as his Consular colleague to replace Caesar. This compromise was a great success for Antony, who managed to simultaneously appease Caesar's veterans, reconcile the Senate majority, and appear to the Liberatores as their partner and protector.
Antony would struggle with Octavian for leadership of the Caesarian party following Caesar's assassination. On 19 March, Caesar's will was opened and read.
In it, Caesar posthumously adopted his great-nephew Gaius Octavius and named him his principal heir. Then only 19 years old and stationed with Caesar's army in Macedonia, the youth became a member of Caesar's Julian clanchanging his name to "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus" Octavian in accordance with the conventions of Roman adoption. Though not the chief beneficiary, Antony did receive some bequests.
Caesar's funeral was held on 20 March. Antony, as Caesar's faithful lieutenant and reigning Consul, was chosen to preside over the ceremony and to recite the elegy. During the demagogic speech, he enumerated the deeds of Caesar and, publicly reading his will, detailed the donations Caesar had left to the Roman people. Antony then seized the blood-stained toga from Caesar's body and presented it to the crowd.
Worked into a fury by the bloody spectacle, the assembly rioted. Several buildings in the Forum and some houses of the conspirators were burned to the ground. Panicked, many of the conspirators fled Italy. Such an assignment, in addition to being unworthy of their rank, would have kept them far from Rome and shifted the balance towards Antony. Refusing such secondary duties, the two traveled to Greece instead. Additionally, Cleopatra left Rome to return to Egypt. Despite the provisions of Caesar's will, Antony proceeded to act as leader of the Caesarian faction, including appropriating for himself a portion of Caesar's fortune rightfully belonging to Octavian.
Antony enacted the Lex Antoniawhich formally abolished the Dictatorship, in an attempt to consolidate his power by gaining the support of the Senatorial class. He also enacted a number of laws he claimed to have found in Caesar's papers to ensure his popularity with Caesar's veterans, particularly by providing land grants to them. Marcus Antonius was defying the will of the Senate and the Senate, led by Circero, called upon Octavian for support against Antonius.
The Senate makes Octavian a senator even though he is far too young to qualify. The troops of Octavian joined with troops which the Senate has at its command. The combined forces drove Antonius out of Italy into Gaul. In the battle with Anthony's forces the two elected Consuls of Rome were killed.
Octavian's troops demanded that the Senate confer the title of Consul on Octavian. Octavian was officially recognized as the son of Julius Caesar.
He then took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. He was more generally known as Octavian during this period. Octavian and Antonius agreed to a sharing of power. They, along with Lepidus who was the Pontifex Maximus, are designated by the Senate as a Triumvirate with dictatorial powers for five years. Octavian, Antonius and Lepidus agreed to eliminate those Senators and members of the Roman aristocracy whom any one of the three considered a threat to public order.
Altogether senators and two thousand lesser level aristocrats are executed. Cicero, a supporter of Octavian, was designated for execution by Antonius under this arrangement. The Senate deemed Julius Caesar as having been a god. This enhanced Octavian's status still further. Antony and Octavian undertook a military expedition to the east to defeat Brutus and Cassius. In two battles at Philippi the troops of Brutus and Cassius are defeated and Brutus and Cassius kill themselves.
The Triumvirate then divide up the Empire. Anthony gets the east and Gaul. Lepidus gets Africa and Octavian gets the west except for Italy which was to be under common control of the three. In Italy Octavian faced a local war where he intended to grant land for settlement to the soldiers of his army.
His forces defeated the local opposition at the city now known as Perugia. The island of Sicily was under the control of the son of Pompey, Sextus Pompeius, which gave him command of the shipping lanes. Octavian tried to defuse conflict with Sextus by entering into a marriage with Scribonia, a relative of Sextus. This ploy did not work. Sextus tried to establish an agreement with Antonius against the interests of Octavian.
Antonius rejected Sextus' offer of an alliance. Octavian later divorced Scribonia. Fulvia, the wife of Marcus Antonius, and his brother rebelled against Octavian in Italy and were killed. Antonius goes to Italy to resolve his relationship with Octavian. The allianace of Octavian and Antonius was renewed and further confirmed by Antonius marrying the sister of Octavian, Octavia.
This political marriage also did not endure. Antonius was still enamored of Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt. The Parthians attack Roman territory in Syria. Antonius and Octavian meet Herod who had been driven out of Judea by the Partians and their allies. Antonius and Octavian agree to return Herod to power. This is the beginning of a long term friendship of Herod and Antonius. A lieutenant of Marcus Antonius wins a decisive battle against the Parthians. Octavian negotiates an arrangement with Antonius in which Antonius supplies Octavian with ships for Octavian's expedition against Sextus in Sicily in return for Octavian supplying troops to Antonius for his proposed invasion of the Parthian empire in the east.
The Triumvirate was renewed for another five years. Octavian was fortunate to have a close and trusted friend from his childhood, Marcus Agrippa, who was a military genius. Under Agrippa's command Octavian's fleet defeated Sextus. Lepidus the member of the Triumvirate who controlled the Roman territories in African attempted to challenge Octavian.