Kublai Khan: China's favourite barbarian - BBC News
Kublai Khan: Kublai was the grandson of Genghis Khan. He succeeded his older brother Möngke as Khagan (Emperor) in , but had to. He is the grandson of Genghis Khan and his successor. Relationships But after some time, Kublai warms to Marco and begins to trust his advice, and use. Kublai Khan was the grandson of the great Mongol conqueror, He also gave first priority to appointing people on their merits and seeking advice from able and worthy Genghis Khan, and he successfully managed to greatly expand his Shangdu and a relationship of trust was formed between the two.
Genghis Khan VS. Kublai Khan by javier garay on Prezi
The final conquest of the Nan Song took several years. Military operations opened once again in The Song emperor Duzong was apparently badly served by his last ministers, who are said to have kept him misinformed of the true situation, whereas many Song commanders went over voluntarily to the Mongols. With all of China in Mongol hands, the Mongol conquests in the south and east had reached their effective limit.
At various times tribute was demanded of the peripheral kingdoms: The Mongol armies suffered some disastrous defeats in those campaigns. In particular, invasion fleets sent to Japan in and were virtually annihilatedthough their loss was as much due to storms the fabled Japanese kamikaze typhoons in those years as to Japanese resistance.
Marco Polo suggests that Kublai wished to annex Japan simply because he was excited by reports of its great wealth. It seems, however, that his colonial wars were fought mainly with a political objective—to establish China once more as the centre of the world. Social and administrative policy The Mongols, by themselves, were incapable of ruling China, and, though at the lower levels they made use of Chinese civil servants, posts of importance were allotted to foreigners.
Of those Marco Polo is a familiar example. At the top were the Mongols menggu renforming a privileged military caste of a few hundred thousand. The foreign auxiliaries of the Mongols, natives for the most part of Central Asia, formed the second group, the semurenpersons with special status.
That class furnished the higher officialdom. In addition, its members, with their worldwide contacts and their privileged status, formed a new breed of merchants and speculators.
- Kublai Khan: China's favourite barbarian
- Marco Polo
- Kublai Khan
Like the Mongols, they were exempt from taxation and enjoyed preferential use of the official post roads and services.
The expenses of state and the support of the privileged bore heavily on those two classes. Peasants were brought in as labourers, to the neglect of their farms. Food supplies in the north were inadequate for the new labour force and the unproductive Mongols, and large quantities had to be brought by sea and, when the sea routes proved insecure, along the Grand Canal.
The repair and extension of the canal also demanded much labour. Kublai, in common with other Mongol rulers, was much preoccupied with religion. His reign was a time of toleration for rival religions and of economic privilege for the favoured religions. Clerics and their communities were exempted from taxation, and Buddhist temples especially were granted generous donations of land and of peasants for their upkeep. Kublai held a debate in his new capital in He ultimately declared the Daoists the losers of the debate and punished their leaders by forcefully converting them and their temples to Buddhism and destroying texts.
Mongke launched his campaign against the Song Dynasty and instructed his youngest brother Arik Boke to protect the Mongol capital of Karakorum. Arik Boke gathered troops and held an assembly called a kuriltai in Karakorum, where he was named the Great Khan.
Kublai Khan - HISTORY
Inhe established his capital at modern-day Beijing and named his empire the Yuan Dynasty — one of several efforts to win over his Chinese subjects. His efforts paid off, with much of the Song imperial family surrendering to Kublai inbut the war continued for another three years. InKublai became the first Mongol to rule all of China when he conquered the last of the Song loyalists. Kublai held a relatively wise and benevolent reign, with his rule distinguished by grand infrastructure improvements including an efficient Mongolian postal system and an extension of the Grand Canalreligious tolerance, scientific advancements improvements to the Chinese calendar, accurate maps, and institutes of medicine, among other thingspaper currency backed by gold reserves and trade expansions.
Despite adopting and improving on many Chinese systems and ideals, Kublai and his Mongols did not want to become Chinese — they kept many of their own customs and remained unassimilated to Chinese life.
InMarco Polo was presented at the court of Kublai Khan. The young Venetian so impressed the ruler that he appointed him to several diplomatic and administrative posts, which he held for about 16 years before his return to Venice. When he moved his headquarters to Khanbaliqalso called Dadu, at modern-day Beijing, there was an uprising in the old capital Karakorum that he barely contained.
Kublai's actions were condemned by traditionalists and his critics still accused him of being too closely tied to Han Chinese culture.
They sent a message to him: What will happen to the old customs? The Song imperial family surrendered to the Yuan inmaking the Mongols the first non-Han Chinese peoples to conquer all of China. Three years later, Yuan marines crushed the last of the Song loyalists. The Song Empress Dowager and her grandson, Emperor Gong of Songwere then settled in Khanbaliq where they were given tax-free property, and Kublai's wife Chabi took a personal interest in their well-being. However, Kublai later had Emperor Gong sent away to become a monk to Zhangye.
Kublai succeeded in building a powerful empire, created an academy, offices, trade ports and canals and sponsored science and the arts. The record of the Mongols lists 20, public schools created during Kublai's reign. Mongol invasions of Japan andthe third invasion of Vietnam —8and the invasion of Java failed.
At the same time, Kublai's nephew Ilkhan Abagha tried to form a grand alliance of the Mongols and the Western European powers to defeat the Mamluks in Syria and North Africa that constantly invaded the Mongol dominions. Abagha and Kublai focused mostly on foreign alliances, and opened trade routes.
Khagan Kublai dined with a large court every day, and met with many ambassadors and foreign merchants. Kublai's son Nomukhan and his generals occupied Almaliq from to However, Kaidu took control over Almaliq.Wait For misjon.info Mongols!: Crash Course World History #17
In —80, Kublai decreed death for those who performed slaughtering of cattle according to the legal codes of Islam dhabihah or Judaism kashrutwhich offended Mongolian custom.
After the execution of Ahmad FanakatiKublai confirmed Arghun's coronation and awarded his commander in chief Buqa the title of chancellor. Konchi, khan of the White Hordeestablished friendly relations with the Yuan and the Ilkhanate, and as a reward received luxury gifts and grain from Kublai.
Emperor Kublai Khan: One Of The Most Powerful People In Human History
Kublai heavily relied on his Chinese advisers until about He had many Han Chinese advisers, such as Liu Bingzhong and Xu Hengand employed many Buddhist Uyghurs, some of whom were resident commissioners running Chinese districts. Inafter the Phags pa Lama created the 'Phags-pa scripthe was promoted to imperial preceptor. During Phagspa's absence in Tibet, the Tibetan monk Sangha rose to high office and had the office renamed the Commission for Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs.
Antong of the Jalairs and Bayan of the Baarin served as grand councillors fromand Oz-temur of the Arulad headed the censorate. Borokhula's descendant, Ochicher, headed a kheshig Mongolian imperial guard and the palace provision commission.
In the eighth year of ZhiyuanKublai officially created the Yuan dynasty and proclaimed the capital as Dadu Chinese: His summer capital was in Shangdu Chinese: To unify China,  Kublai began a massive offensive against the remnants of the Southern Song in and finally destroyed the Song inunifying the country at last. Chinese opera flourished during Yuan China. Most of the Yuan domains were administered as provinces, also translated as the "Branch Secretariat", each with a governor and vice-governor.
It was considered the most important region of the dynasty and was directly governed by the Zhongshu Sheng at Dadu. Tibet was governed by another top-level administrative department called the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs. Kublai promoted economic growth by rebuilding the Grand Canalrepairing public buildings, and extending highways.