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KAREN SCHECHNER look into the relationship between Ingray and Netano might tests in nearly all forms, including a rash of books that at- tempt to . Rodolfo “Rudy Redbeard” Rodriguez Gallo, and the legendary. of Young Doctor Movement leaders Dr Karen Flegg (Australia) ESPAÑOL 17 . Prof Ching-Yu a couple of weeks of rest and relaxation, Chen, Prof Tai-Yuan .. Bhutan doctors will have an presentations and a quiz contest. involvement in the . [email protected] Waynakay Iberoamericana Rodolfo Deusdará. As San Francisco retirees, Karen and Rodolfo Cancino appreciate the of both new compensatory instruments and novel worker relationships.
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Do less populous countries receive more development assistance for health per capita? Longitudinal evidence for countries, — Sykdomsbyrden i Norge i Tidsskrift for Den norske legeforening. Future and potential spending on health — Evolution and patterns of global health financing — Variation in the relationship between birth weight and subsequent obesity by household income.
Economic losses and burden of disease by medical conditions in Norway. Alcohol-attributed disease burden in four Nordic countries: Body mass index and employment status: Economics and Human Biology. Waist circumference, body mass index, and employment outcomes. European Journal of Health Economics. Can socioeconomic factors explain geographic variation in overweight in Norway?.
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SSM - Population Health. Ross; Bachman, Victoria F. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in countries, A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Musculoskeletal disorders in Norway: Prevalence of chronicity and use of primary and specialist health care services.
Educational differences in life expectancy over five decades among the oldest old in Norway. Educational inequalities in obesity and gross domestic product: Income related inequalities in avoidable mortality in norway: A population-based study using data from The aim of this study was to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable,amenable and preventable mortality in Norway over the period — We undertook a register-based population study of Norwegian residents aged18—65 years between andusing data from the Norwegian Income Register andthe Cause of Death Registry.
Concentration indices were used to measure income-relatedinequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality for each year. We comparedthe trend in income-related inequality in avoidable mortality with the trend in incomeinequality, measured by the Gini coefficient for income.
Avoidable, amenable and preventable deaths in Norway have declined over time. There were persistent pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable, amenable andpreventable mortality, and the degree of inequality was larger in preventable mortality thanin amenable mortality throughout the period. The income-avoidable mortality associationwas positively correlated with income inequalities in avoidable mortality over time. Therewas little or no relationship between variations in the Gini coefficient due to tax reformsand socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable mortality.
Income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortalityhave remained relatively constant between and in Norway.
They were mainlycorrelated with the relationship between income and avoidable mortality rather than withvariations in the Gini coefficient of income inequality. How much of the variation in mortality across Norwegian municipalities is explained by the socio-demographic characteristics of the population?.
When other tasters were present, which was true the majority of the time, everyone but the server tasted blind. Here are the basic results: In one out of 11 tests, tasters unanimously chose the countertop tomatoes over the refrigerated ones.
This was one of the batches stored for 24 hours. In five out of 11 tests, tasters unanimously preferred the refrigerated tomatoes—the countertop tomatoes tasted flat and dull in comparison.
The remaining five tests yielded either split votes or an inability to differentiate between the two samples. In all instances where the votes were split, no tasters had strong convictions about which tomato was better, so I'm considering all five of these cases in which the refrigerator and the countertop tomatoes were essentially indistinguishable from each other.
These results jibe with my original theory: Because peak-season farmers market tomatoes are already perfectly ripe, they benefit very little from extra time in the heat, and in many cases they are harmed by it, while the refrigerator does minimal harm once tomatoes are ripe.
Even the texture of the ripe tomatoes was not noticeably affected by the refrigerator. Let me leave you with one lasting image that, all on its own, should illustrate my point. Below, you can see the relative merits of counter versus refrigerator storage at the four-day mark on a pair of tomatoes that started out just about equally ripe. The countertop tomato is degrading more quickly due to its high-heat environment. Daniel Gritzer] Great, you might be thinking.
You just showed that tomatoes rot faster at room temperature than in the refrigerator. If you're buying your tomatoes ripe which we should all be doing! Where Do We Stand Now? The question of whether to refrigerate tomatoes or not is really a question of which is the lesser of two evils.
But I also know that few of us maintain such consistently cool temperatures at home. If you have a chilly cellar or a wine fridge, then count yourself lucky. If your thermostat is always set that low, then I don't want to see your electric bill.
The rest of us have a choice: Once your tomatoes are ripe, the fridge is usually your best bet. Based on my tests, here are some more fully fleshed-out tomato-storage guidelines: If at all possible, buy only as many perfectly ripe tomatoes as you can eat within a day or two, keep them stored stem side down on a flat surface at room temperature, and make sure to eat them all within the first day or two.
If you buy underripe tomatoes, leave them out at room temperature until they're fully ripened, then move them to a cooler spot for longer storage. If you have a wine fridge or cool cellar, store all ripe tomatoes that you can't eat within the first day there. If you don't have a wine fridge or cool cellar, store all ripe tomatoes that you can't eat within the first day in the refrigerator.
If you're storing tomatoes in the refrigerator, it may be better to locate them on a top shelf near the door, which is often warmer than the bottom and back of the fridge.
If you're the kind of person who can't stand eating fridge-cold tomatoes and doesn't have the time or patience to let them warm back up on the counter, then you've got some tough decisions ahead of you, I'm afraid. In Search of More Data My tomato tests were challenging the long-held idea that a tomato should never see the inside of a refrigerator, but I still needed more data.
After all, more data is always a good thing, and reproducibility is the foundation of any reliable experimental result. I decided to run more tests, and asked Kenji to run some over on the West Coast, just to see if he would get similar results as mine.
Either my initial observations would hold, or I'd have to revise them. Kenji and I split up the tasks. Here on the East Coast, I went to the farmers market and bought a large load of both regular red tomatoes and a variety of heirlooms. Then I'd follow that with some triangle tests to see just how well tasters could really differentiate between refrigerated and room-temp samples. Meanwhile, over yonder in the Bay Area, Kenji went and picked his own tomatoes straight from the vine, just to remove any lingering question about the handling practices of the middlemen.
He then did his own blind tastings with those tomatoes.Relationship quiz: How long will your relationship last? Love personality test - Guess who you are
He also examined the refrigerated tomatoes for signs of mealiness. So, what were our results? I also found no studies that examined truly ripe tomatoes—they seemed to have all been designed with the concerns of large-scale tomato growers, who pick their tomatoes while still green, in mind, and not the concerns of those of us at home. But when I went out to run this latest round of tests, temperatures in New York had fallen considerably, down to the 60s and 70s.
My whole argument revolved around very hot summertime conditions, and I had made no claim that the refrigerator was equal to or better than temps in the 70s and below. Most of them were regular red slicing tomatoes; the rest were an assortment of heirlooms. Their quality was variable. I put half of each type of tomato in the refrigerator and the other half out on the counter.
The next day, I took the refrigerated ones out and let them come back up to room temperature. I then cut up each tomato and assigned it a number. I had 10 tasters work their way through the samples, each in a different order, to ensure that no single tomato was disadvantaged due to tasters' palate fatigue. Tasters evaluated the tomatoes on a scale of one to 10 on four criteria: The overall-preference score aligned almost exactly with the other scores, so the below chart shows the overall-preference score, since the others look pretty much the same: Before going into the specifics, I want to reiterate that this test compared tomatoes stored at temperatures in the low 70s to refrigerated ones, essentially pitting refrigerated tomatoes against much more ideal conditions than in my previous tests.
Instead of seeing a clear and decisive difference between refrigerated tomatoes and counter tomatoes, the differences were very small. On average, the counter tomatoes just barely edged out the refrigerated ones, except with the small yellow heirloom tomatoes, in which case the refrigerated ones received the highest average score. That was also the highest average score of all the tomatoes, which means that even when compared with much more ideal conditions, refrigerated tomatoes are capable of coming out on top: Of all the tomatoes in the tasting, all of us the 10 tasters plus me agreed, unanimously, that the small yellow tomatoes—the ones that scored highest in the fridge and out—were the best.
Meanwhile, the basic red tomatoes were the worst in terms of overall quality, and they also were the set in which the refrigerated tomatoes scored the lowest. This lends further support to my theory that the higher-quality and riper the tomato, the less harm the refrigerator will do to it.
Simply put, really good, ripe tomatoes tend to do well in the refrigerator, while lower-quality tomatoes remain bad or get worse in the fridge: Underripe tomatoes continue to be underripe, and mealy tomatoes become mealier. One more very important detail: What the chart above shows are average scores. But within each group, there was a notable variance.
For the red tomatoes, for instance, I had individual refrigerated samples that scored as high as 5. So while the countertop tomatoes slightly edged out the refrigerated ones when averaged together, the distribution of individual tomato scores was much less consistent, regardless of storage method. This, too, suggests that the fruit itself is the bigger factor in how it will handle storage conditions, not some blanket rule about the storage conditions themselves.
The Triangle Tests Next up, the triangle testwhich determines whether blind-tasters can pick the odd sample out through many rounds of tasting. I wasn't totally convinced there was an advantage to this test: I had never claimed that refrigerated tomatoes were going to always be indistinguishable from room-temp ones. In my earlier tests, we were unable to differentiate between refrigerated and unrefrigerated about half the time.
But in the other instances, the differences were apparent; it's just that in those cases, we tended to like the refrigerated ones more. Still, I figured there was no harm in trying a triangle test out. I did a test run on Max one night, using more of those not-so-great red tomatoes that I had set aside.
Max has a very good palate, so I was curious to see how he would do. In each tasting round, I presented Max with three slices of tomato in random order either two refrigerated and one countertop, or two countertop and one refrigeratedand his task was to see if he could figure out which of the three was the odd one out. After 12 rounds, Max had correctly identified the odd tomato six times, which is slightly better than chance. In a triangle test, random guessing should yield correct answers one-third of the time, which in this case would be four out of the 12 rounds.
When he was able to correctly identify the tomato samples, he also picked the counter sample s as his preference. But when he got it wrong, he sometimes picked refrigerated slices as his preference.
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This is consistent with the blind-tasting results above: Even though the red counter tomatoes edged out the refrigerated ones overall, there were individual refrigerated samples within the mix that scored higher than some of the counter samples. But 12 rounds isn't enough, so the next day I bought even more tomatoes, refrigerated half overnight, and then lined up five different tasters for a new session of triangle testing, with 24 rounds total.
Out of 24 rounds, we'd expect random guessing to be correct eight times one-third of the total number of rounds. By the end of my session, my tasters had been correct nine out of 24 times, performing just a hair above the random-guessing rate. As I was slicing the tomatoes for these tests, I felt that the differences were more apparent, but then again, I knew which was which. In some cases, I thought the counter tomatoes were better; in others, I thought the refrigerated ones were.
What this test shows is that once that knowledge is removed, the differences can be subtle enough that tasters have a very hard time telling refrigerated and countertop tomatoes apart. So, while I don't believe that room-temp and refrigerated tomatoes are totally indistinguishable, these tests indicate that the claims of horrible effects of refrigeration on ripe tomatoes are exaggerated. Kenji's Tests Out in the Bay Area, Kenji also ran his tests, with tomatoes he picked directly off the vine himself.
Just as with my most recent tests, Kenji's house is in the low 70s and mid-to-high 60s—theoretically ideal tomato-storage conditions. I'm going to let Kenji tell you in his own words: The tomatoes that I picked were fully ripe. I held them for two days, half in the fridge, half on the counter.
I let the refrigerated tomatoes come back to room temp before tasting, then I did a blind taste test with six people. Of those six, two did simple side-by-side preference tests: They both picked the fridge tomatoes as superior. The other four did triangle tests: Of those, three correctly picked the odd tomato out, and all picked the refrigerated tomatoes as superior.
The fourth person who did the triangle test selected the odd one out incorrectly, but she still picked the refrigerated tomato as her favorite.
I also did a test slicing tomatoes open and checking them subjectively for mealiness as they warmed up. I didn't notice any mealiness from a fully ripe tomato that had been put in the refrigerator.
Kenji's results support what I suggested above: Refrigerated and countertop tomatoes won't always be indistinguishable, but even when they are, the refrigerator isn't by any means guaranteed to be worse.
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Our results from these latest tests are, frankly, as surprising to me as I imagine they are to many of you reading this: Yet here we have multiple tests, performed on two different coasts by two different people, with many different varieties of tomato, and that's exactly what we're seeing.
On the Value of Science and the Danger of Misusing It Throughout this tomato-tasting experience, I've reflected quite a bit on the role of science in all of this. Science itself has done nothing wrong: It's a beautiful system—the best one we've got—for answering questions about how pretty much everything in the observable universe works. But it's easy for us to misuse it, and I think it's just such a misuse that created this inflexible rule about tomato storage in the first place.
If you'll bear with me, I'll explain: As I've written above, all of the academic studies I found on tomato storage were based on a narrow set of conditions: Those studies concluded—and I'm willing to believe that they're correct—that those tomatoes are harmed by refrigeration and are better stored at slightly higher temperatures, in the 50s and 60s.
So what happens with these studies? This is just a scenario I've made up, but it's plausible to me, and it shows how the further we get from the original data, the more likely it is that the data will be misinterpreted: