James I | Biography, Religion, & Facts | misjon.info
James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland. Credit: Commons. Charles's relationship with Parliament was tricky. He understood that. James I, the first king to reign in both England and Scotland, faced many difficulties with the Parliament of England. Though recent studies have shown that the Parliament of Scotland may have been more of a thorn in his side than was previously believed, James developed his political philosophy of the relationship between have traced the problems with Parliament faced by . The reigns of James I and Charles I, the Gunpowder Plot, Oliver Cromwell, and the relationship with an increasingly vociferous and demanding Parliament.
Charles I (r. ) | The Royal Family
Throughout his reign Charles was obliged to rely primarily on volunteer forces for defence and on diplomatic efforts to support his sister, Elizabeth, and his foreign policy objective for the restoration of the Palatinate.
Relying on this old statute, Charles fined individuals who had failed to attend his coronation in Previously, collection of ship money had been authorised only during wars, and only on coastal regions.
Charles, however, argued that there was no legal bar to collecting the tax for defence during peacetime and throughout the whole of the kingdom. Disafforestation frequently caused riots and disturbances including those known as the Western Rising.
The City of London, preoccupied with its own grievances, refused to make any loans to the king, as did foreign powers. Arminian theology emphasised clerical authority and the individual's ability to reject or accept salvation, which opponents viewed as heretical and a potential vehicle for the reintroduction of Roman Catholicism.
Puritan reformers thought Charles was too sympathetic to the teachings of Arminianism, which they considered irreligious, and opposed his desire to move the Church of England in a more traditional and sacramental direction. Although born in Scotland, Charles had become estranged from his northern kingdom; his first visit since early childhood was for his Scottish coronation in The public began to mobilise around a reaffirmation of the National Covenantwhose signatories pledged to uphold the reformed religion of Scotland and reject any innovations that were not authorised by Kirk and Parliament.
Bishops' Wars Charles perceived the unrest in Scotland as a rebellion against his authority, precipitating the First Bishops' War in Because of his financial weakness, he was forced to call Parliament into session in an attempt to raise funds for such a venture. Despite the protests of Northumberland,  the Short Parliament as it came to be known was dissolved in Mayless than a month after it assembled.
Charles I of England
They met virtually no resistance until reaching Newcastle upon Tynewhere they defeated the English forces at the Battle of Newburn and occupied the city, as well as the neighbouring county of Durham.
By the time it met, on 24 September at YorkCharles had resolved to follow the almost universal advice to call a parliament. Finally in fighting broke out.
The English Civil War polarized society largely along class lines. Parliament drew most of its support from the middle classes, while the king was supported by the nobility, the clergy, and the peasantry. Parliamentary troops were known as Roundheads because of their severe hair style.
The king's army were known as Cavaliers, from the French for "knight", or "horseman".
Oliver Cromwell The war began as a series of indecisive skirmishes notable for not much beyond the emergence of a Parliamentary general from East Anglia named Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell whipped his irregular volunteer troops into the disciplined New Model Army.
Meanwhile, Charles established the royalist headquarters in Oxford, called his own Parliament, and issued his own money. He also allied himself with Irish Catholics, which alienated some of his supporters.
To the poor, the turmoil over religion around the Civil War meant little. They were bound by tradition and they supported the king, as they always had. Charles encouraged poor relief, unemployment measures, price controls, and protection for small farmers.
For most people, life during the Civil War went on as before. Few were involved or even knew about the fighting. In a farmer at Marston Moor was told to clear out because the armies of Parliament and the king were preparing to fight. Charles' troops under his nephew Prince Rupert were soundly beaten by Cromwell, giving Parliament control of the north of England.
Above the border Lord Montrose captured much of Scotland for Charles, but was beaten at Philiphaugh and Scot support was lost for good.
The Parliamentary cause became increasingly entangled with extreme radical Protestantism. In Archbishop Laud was executed, and in the same year the Battle of Naseby spelled the end of the royalist hopes. Hostilities dragged on for another year, and the Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold was the last armed conflict of the war.
But poor parliamentary management, and deficiencies in the arts of kingship both contributed to the successive impasses which both monarchs seemed destined to arrive at with Parliament. In James's first Parliament, ofthe impasse was concerned with the king's project for a union between his kingdoms of England and Scotland, with the royal right of purveyance - the purchase of goods for the royal household at below the market rate, and with the Lord Treasurer's proposals for the reform of royal finances, 'The Great Contract'.
The Early Stuarts and the English Civil War
Having avoided a further meeting with his subjects for as long as possible, James finally tried again inimpelled by his deteriorating financial situation.
The new Parliament failed too, known as the 'Addled Parliament' as a result of its complete failure to pass any legislations at all. It would be seven years before James tried again: For once, it was forthcoming from the Parliament ofif at the expense of Francis Bacon, Viscount St Alban, the Lord Chancellor, who was impeached for corruption. The attack on ministers however then began to get dangerously close to James's favourite George Villiers, the duke of Buckingham, and the Parliament eventually foundered over the House of Commons' anxieties about James's plans to marry his son to a Spanish Catholic princess, and his furious reaction to their interference in matters he regarded as none of their business.