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interview at initial application for both TANF and SNAP purposes. TANF households . When action is taken that results in a change in benefit level, “ effective. separate process from treatment proper, is the ﬁrst step in a competent and effective treat- In a useful review, Chick provides information on mode of action, evidence of efﬁ- . Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change (2nd .. behavioral approach when compared to a relationship enhancement approach. Organization Development & Change. 9e. Thomas G. . Entering into an OD Relationship. 76 Interviews. Observations. Unobtrusive Measures. Sampling. Application Process Consultation at Action Company.
Fayol also gave much of the basic terminology and concepts, which would be elaborated upon by future researchers, such as division of labour, scalar chain, unity of command and centralisation. Disadvantages Fayol was describing the structure of formal organisations.
Absence of attention to issues such as individual versus general interest, remuneration and equity suggest that Fayol saw the employer as paternalistic and by definition working in the employee's interest. Many of these principles have been absorbed into modern day organisations, but they were not designed to cope with conditions of rapid change.
The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft
F W Taylor - -USA- The Scientific Management School Taylorism involved breaking down the components of manual tasks in manufacturing environments, timing each movement 'time and motion' studies so that there could be a proven best way to perform each task.
Thus employees could be trained to be 'first class' within their job. This was a scientific system where every task became discrete and specialised. Specialised services are provided in the NHS, and these management techniques could prove useful in these areas, to review productivity.
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Key points about Taylor, who is credited with what we now call 'Taylorism': For the workers, scientific management required them to: The benefits arising from scientific management can be summarised as follows: The drawbacks were mainly for the workers: Therefore, in summary, while the scientific management technique has been employed to increase productivity and efficiency both in private and public services, it has also had the disadvantages of discounting many of the human aspects of employment.
Taylorism prevailed in the '30s through to the early '60s - and in many organisations considerably later than this. Max Weber -Germany Weber described bureaucracy as the most efficient way of working.Interviewing in Action in a Multicultural World with DVD
Bureaucracy in this context is the organisational form of certain dominant characteristics such as a hierarchy of authority and a system of rules. Bureaucracy in a sense of red tape or officialdom should not be used as these meanings are value-ridden and only emphasise very negative aspects of the original Max Weber model.
The SAGE Handbook of Interview Research: The Complexity of the Craft - SAGE Research Methods
Authority is distinguished from power by Weber. Power is a unilateral thing - it enables a person to force another to behave in a certain way, whether by means of strength or by rewards. Authority, on the other hand, implies acceptance of the rules by those over whom it is to be exercised within limits agreeable to the subordinates that Weber refers to in discussing legitimate authority. Weber presented three types of legitimate authority also discussed in Section 5a: It is the rational-legal authority form that exists in most organisations today and this is the form to which Weber ascribed the term 'bureaucracy'.
The main features of bureaucracy according to Weber were: Rules, decisions and actions were formulated and recorded in writing. Narrative interviews Unstructured interviewing allows the respondent to tell their own stories in their own words, with prompting by the interviewer.
The objective of the unstructured interview has been summarised as, 'to elicit rich, detailed materials that can be used in qualitative analysis. Its objective is to find out what kind of things are happening rather than to determine the frequency of predetermined kinds of things that the researcher already believes can happen' 7. In an unstructured interview, the researcher simply has a list of topics that they want the respondent to talk about. But the way the questions are phrased and which order they come will vary from one interview to the next as the interview process is determined by the responses stories of the interviewees.
In-depth interviews In in-depth interviews the aim is to obtain a more detailed, rich understanding of the topic of interest. They usually comprise an ethnographic approach and complement participant observation or action research methods. In-depth interviews are more structured than narrative interviews as the topic discussed will be directed by the researcher and they rarely involve stories or life histories.
However in-depth interviews do allow the participant to communicate much more freely and to provide more detailed descriptions when compared to semi-structured interviews.
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Rather, the general area of interest is explained to the participant as part of recruitment and consent see later in the chapter and the interviewer directs the interview according to the responses. Focus groups Focus groups are a form of group interview with the aim of capturing the interaction between the participants based on topics that are supplied by the researcher 8.
The main purpose of focus group research is to evoke a level of respondents' attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences and reactions otherwise not available when using methods, such as observation or interviewing. These attitudes, feelings and beliefs may be partially independent of a group or its social setting, but are more likely to be revealed via the social gathering and the interaction created in a focus group. Focus groups are particularly useful when there are power differences between the participants and decision-makers or professionals, when the everyday use of language and culture of particular groups is of interest, and when one wants to explore the degree of consensus on a given topic 9.
Despite all the potential of focus groups, this method has its limitations. However, these limitations are dependent on the study design and can be reduced by diligent planning. Four of the main limitations are: The practical organisation of focus groups requires the following: Being clear about the role of the moderator.
This will require the researcher to provide clear explanations of the purpose to the group, ask questions and facilitate interaction between group members e.
Action research This is a collaborative and cyclical between practical action and research approach to research, in which both practitioners e. Action research methodologies aim to integrate action and reflection, so that the knowledge developed in the research process is directly relevant to the issues being studied.