Weight, Inertia & Gravity
The only difference that we can find between inertial and gravitational mass that we Is there any mathematical relationship between gravity and time speed?. Inertia is the resistance, of any physical object, to any change in its velocity. This includes . But this new relationship also carried with it new implications for the concept of inertia. The logical conclusion of special There is no measurable difference between gravitational mass and inertial mass. The gravitational mass is. The Mass/Inertia/Gravity/Weight Relationship. . In Newton's "Law of Gravitation", the two attracting masses are both Inertial Masses not Gravitational Masses.
The first physicist to completely break away from the Aristotelian model of motion was Isaac Beeckman in Unless acted upon by a net unbalanced force, an object will maintain a constant velocity. Note that "velocity" in this context is defined as a vectorthus Newton's "constant velocity" implies both constant speed and constant direction and also includes the case of zero speed, or no motion.
Since initial publication, Newton's Laws of Motion and by inclusion, this first law have come to form the basis for the branch of physics known as classical mechanics.
Kepler defined inertia only in terms of a resistance to movement, once again based on the presumption that rest was a natural state which did not need explanation. It was not until the later work of Galileo and Newton unified rest and motion in one principle that the term "inertia" could be applied to these concepts as it is today.
In fact, Newton originally viewed the phenomenon he described in his First Law of Motion as being caused by "innate forces" inherent in matter, which resisted any acceleration.
Given this perspective, and borrowing from Kepler, Newton attributed the term "inertia" to mean "the innate force possessed by an object which resists changes in motion"; thus, Newton defined "inertia" to mean the cause of the phenomenon, rather than the phenomenon itself. However, Newton's original ideas of "innate resistive force" were ultimately problematic for a variety of reasons, and thus most physicists no longer think in these terms.
As no alternate mechanism has been readily accepted, and it is now generally accepted that there may not be one which we can know, the term "inertia" has come to mean simply the phenomenon itself, rather than any inherent mechanism.
Thus, ultimately, "inertia" in modern classical physics has come to be a name for the same phenomenon described by Newton's First Law of Motion, and the two concepts are now considered to be equivalent. Relativity[ edit ] Albert Einstein 's theory of special relativityas proposed in his paper entitled "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" was built on the understanding of inertia and inertial reference frames developed by Galileo and Newton.
While this revolutionary theory did significantly change the meaning of many Newtonian concepts such as massenergyand distanceEinstein's concept of inertia remained unchanged from Newton's original meaning in fact, the entire theory was based on Newton's definition of inertia.
However, this resulted in a limitation inherent in special relativity: In an attempt to address this limitation, Einstein proceeded to develop his general theory of relativity "The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity,"which ultimately provided a unified theory for both inertial and noninertial accelerated reference frames.
However, in order to accomplish this, in general relativity, Einstein found it necessary to redefine several fundamental concepts such as gravity in terms of a new concept of "curvature" of space-timeinstead of the more traditional system of forces understood by Newton.
The result of this is that, according to general relativity, inertia is the gravitational coupling between matter and spacetime. When dealing with very large scales, the traditional Newtonian idea of "inertia" does not actually apply and cannot necessarily be relied upon.
- Gravity and Gravitation - Key terms
- Inertia and Gravitation
Luckily, for sufficiently small regions of spacetime, the special theory can be used and inertia still means the same and works the same as in the classical model. But this new relationship also carried with it new implications for the concept of inertia.
The logical conclusion of special relativity was that if mass exhibits the principle of inertia, then inertia must also apply to energy. The first body is speeded up by the force F with acceleration equal to G in the space unable to display the gravity force. The second body is in stable equilibrium in the gravitational field with the acceleration G.
It is easy to notice that the readings of dynamometer D1 on the body of Fig 1a will be greater than those of dynamometer D2 on the body of Fig. This example clearly shows the inconsistency of the equivalence principle. When we imitate gravitation in the body that is in the lift moving up, the distributed gravitational field is absent.
The diagram showing the difference between the state of the body accelerated by a physical force a. It is easy to explain the formation mechanism of the weightlessness state inside the satellite moving on the near-Earth orbit with our concept of the gradient gravitational field. As applied to the body situated on the Earth orbit, the Earth gravity plays the role of the force Fc Eq. Substituting the value of the centripetal force that ensures the value of the earth gravity in Eq.
The centrifugal force Fc, as well as the gravitational force, acts equally on every part, particle and atom of the orbital physical body balancing the gravitational force. Therein lies the cause for the zero-gravity of bodies in the Earth orbit. Note that according to Eq. As a result note that it is just the gravitational force representing the gradient pressure on every elementary particle constituting a physical body that causes all bodies to fall with equal acceleration.
A great scientist Galileo Galilei was the first to establish this fact. Accepting the concept that gravitation is the distributed gradient pressure resolves the problem of identity of gravitating and inert masses.
The above arguments show the striking fact that some problems of not only celestial but also classical mechanics cannot be solved without the ether concept. It is appropriate at this point to cite mechanical engineer A.
Inertia and Gravitation
Supporters of the inertia force reality advance the facts of a cord tension as a stone rotates on it, a rupture of fast-revolving flywheels, a feeling of additional gravity in a lift going up etc. Would we come to Galileo-Newton ordinary laws of motion in this case?
As indicated above, the acceptance of the ether medium concept allows removing the existing contradictions.
Interaction of masses with gravitation and ether In a general evaluation of the inertial motion one should take into account that all bodies move in the ether or otherwise in the ether medium . This refers to both cosmic bodies and microparticles. The above assessment of the body inertia pertains to the values of the motion velocity that are much lower than the velocities of electromagnetic waves light in the ether C. A body moving in the ether medium with the velocity that is much lower than the light velocity virtually does not interact with the ether medium .
A physical body moving uniformly in the ether medium does not experience resistance. The ether resembles an ideal medium displaying no friction effects.
But at the same time the ether has certain characteristics like a specific solid body . Revealing the peculiarities and properties of the ether medium has been taking place for a very long period of time.
The first assumptions about the existence of the luminiferous and all pervasive medium were formulated in ancient Greece. Newton considered the ether to be responsible for transmission of gravitational effects: James Clerk Maxwell revealed the distinction of the ether from the well-known media.
In what follows the discovery of electromagnetic waves by G. Hertz attached some new very important properties to the ether. Besides transmission of gravitational effects, the influence of static electric charges, force of magnets, the ether can transmit electromagnetic waves.
It possesses dielectric and magnetic permeability, wave resistance, specific density. The sunlight appeared to be a set of electromagnetic waves.
Infrared and ultraviolet rays, hard X-rays are transmitted by the same carrier — the ether or, put otherwise, the ether medium. More recently by observation results of the Earth-geostationary satellite system it was corroborated that the electromagnetic wave velocity in the free space is determined only by the ether medium properties .
No matter with what velocity the source may move, the velocity of electromagnetic waves from it is equal to the speed of light in the ether.
In this case the influence of the Earth movement on the aberration of the electromagnetic waves from the source placed on the satellite was found. This allowed one to measure the parameters of the absolute movement of the Earth and solar system without astronomic stellar observations. The obtained values of the orbital component of the Earth velocity This result is a direct proof of the fact that the velocity of the uniformly moving laboratory coordinate system in our case the Earth can be actually measured with the device in which the radiator source geostationary satellite and receiver antenna of a terrestrial telescope are at rest relative to each other and to the same coordinate system.
That is to say that the ether medium in the interstellar space can be taken as the independent coordinate system. The interaction of a physical body particle moving with the near-light speed is most conspicuous in the phenomenon called Cherenkov effect. This effect was first registered in transparent water surrounding radioactive materials emitting high-energy particles. The effect lies in emission of the light quanta by a particle if the particle, for instance, an electron moves with the speed V exceeding the light phase velocity Vf in this medium.
In this case the following condition is met : This effect lies in the fact that a particle emits light within a certain dispersion cone. Ginzburg  pointed that such analogies are useful: The cone of the arising emission 11 is similar to Mach cone that restricts the front of the shock wave in the gas medium air when a body moves with the supersonic speed. A shock wave in gas arises as the velocity of the body exceeds the speed of sound, i.
Cherenkov effect has been registered in transparent media in which the velocity of electromagnetic waves is lower than the speed of these waves in the ether. There are some works in which the motion of particles with supraluminal speeds has been registered experimentally . In the experiments Cherenkov radiation in the motion of the lead ion beam was observed. The speed of the particles was found to exceed the light speed by 1. The author obtained the result that such a charge must radiate.
So the particle moving with the near-light speed radiates. This means that it looses the motion energy and inertia.
Thus, the way of this particle travelling faster than light is finite. Besides, the mass of the moving particle body depends on the speed value, if this speed approaches the light speed, i. Numerous experiments show that the body mass depends on the velocity of its travel in the ether medium. This dependence is expressed by the following formula : The dependence 12 shows that as the particle speed approaches the light speed one can observe the phenomena similar to those arising when the body speed approaches the sound speed in gases.
Is gravity and inertia the same
It is also useful here to apply the analogue method mentioned by V. But the fundamental difference exists between these phenomena. As a body moves in gas the gas flows round it. When moving in the ether medium, the ether medium moves through the physical body . In this case the ether medium interacts immediately with every elementary particle constituting the physical body and possessing mass — with electrons, protons, neutrons etc.
As the particle speed approaches the light speed its mass becomes equal to m