Haiti–United States relations - Wikipedia
Title: The diplomatic relations of the United States with Haiti, , by Rayford W. Logan; Physical Description: Mixed Material; Publisher: Chapel Hill, The. For the most recently published version of this fact sheet, see misjon.info gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/. More information about Haiti is available on the. A major factor in analyzing the state of Haiti today is its relationship with the United States both now and throughout history. Haitian Independence, American .
It is evident, however, from the documents already published that if he has deceived posterity, he also deceived contem- porary French statesmen, for Louis XVI, Maurepas and other members of the Council of State, and Ossun all agreed with him early in that there was a real danger of reconciliation and joint attack. There could be no doubt that the loss of the Thirteen Colonies would greatly weaken Great Britain.
There was, on the other hand, only the possibility that Great Britain would attack the French West Indies. But even that contingency had to be guarded against because France would gain little if, while the Thirteen Colonies were being subtracted from the British scale, France at the same time lost her remaining possessions in the Western world.
Whatever may have been the role of the French West Indies in determining French policy from tothe guarantee of those possessions by the United States "forever from the present time and against all other powers" constitutes probably the most entangling permanent commitment in the history of the United States. It is, of course, possible to argue that this American guarantee reveals a real fear on France's part of a Brit- ish attack on her Caribbean colonies. Fortunately for the United States the wars of the French Revolution were to permit her to liberate herself from an entanglement that might have changed her history.
Another possible reason for French aid and the alliance was the desire to promote commerce between the United States and France, including the French West Indies. It is true that Vergennes adumbrated the importance of commerce be- tween the United States and Saint Domingue as early as September 20, In a letter of that date to D'Ennery he referred to Spain's permission for France to obtain supplies for her West Indian colo- nies from certain of Spain's possessions, including Louisiana.
Since these would hardly suffice, however, help from the Americans "would be more direct and more abundant. He was even optimistic enough to foresee the possibility that D'Ennery might obtain from the Americans a surplus that he could send to France. At all events, Stephen Girard, "the first private banker in the Untied States," laid the foundation for his later enormous fortune by trading with Saint Domingue during the American Revolution and the years afterward.
But this argument was advanced at a time when, as will be shown later,54 some French statesmen were advocating in the face of considerable opposition a friendly policy toward the United States. That the desire for commerce between the United States and the French West Indies was only a secondary consideration is evidenced by the terms of the treaty of commerce which was also signed on February 6, The most-favored-nation treatment which it granted to Americans was confined to the French ports in Europe.
France did promise to keep open the existing free ports in the Caribbean, but she did not open any new ones there. In only one respect did the treaty seek to promote trade between the United States and the French West Indies.
The original treaty exempted molasses taken by Americans from those islands from the payment of duty in the United States in return for a promise not to impose an export tax on goods taken by Frenchmen from the United States to those possessions. In evaluating the motives behind the French policy, we must also consider the opportunity for profits foreseen by some enter- prising French friends of the United States.
This examination will permit us at the same time to assay the importance of Saint Domingue in the scheme of secret aid and to indicate the personal "See below, p. As early as September,D'Ennery reported that Americans had bought a lot of powder in Saint Domingue during that year. The Continental Congress did not fail to take ad- vantage of the opportunities for buying in the Caribbean the sup- plies that the Americans sorely needed.
On October 13,the Committee of the Whole resolved that it be recommended to the various revolutionary assemblies that they export certain products at their own risk to the foreign West Indies in return for "arms, ammunition, sulphur and salt petre. Beaumarchais had already had a romantic interest in Saint A.
Franklin Jame- son, "St. He had also had a financial interest in the colony as a result of investments that he had made there. He pointed out that by using French vessels they could be absolutely sure of the "trans- portation of munitions to Cap Fran9ais which Hortalez has chosen to be his first port of deposit in America.
Just how much aid. The British curtailed trade relations early in by stationing two frigates off M6le St. Neverthe- less, in order to convince Great Britain of France's desire to remain on friendly terms with her, he wanted the contraband trade com- pletely stopped.
It was not until the end of the year, however, that apparently the first ship of Hortalez and Company set sail for the United States via Saint Domingue.
In December of that year Beaumar- chais informed Vergennes that he had ready the Amphitrite to carry a regiment of Irish soldiers and supplies to the United States. All the ship's papers were in order to show that the entire consign- ment was for D'Ennery. France, of course, had the right to send reinforcements and supplies to her own colony. In order to supervise the operations of his company in Saint Domingue Beaumarchais kept one of his agents, Carabas, there for a number of years.
On July 1,Beaumarchais notified Vergennes that the cargo of the Amlie had already reached Saint Domingue and had left for the United States on several American ships.
On De- cember 20 of that year Beaumarchais wrote to Francy, his agent in the United States, that he was sending to Saint Domingue a vessel with uniforms for American soldiers and more than one hundred cannon.
The United States was to send ships to lie off Cap Frangais. After giving a preliminary signal, they were to hoist the Dutch flag to the main mast and then fire five shots.
The French ship was then to go out and permit itself to be captured and carried into an American port where, after trial, it was to be released. But, in the meanwhile, the cargo would have been turned over to the Americans. The Americans, in the meanwhile, were equally active.
Their 8 Doniol, Participation de la France, I, Richard Morris of the Secret Committee of Congress wrote Silas Deane, the first American agent in Paris, on August 11,that Richard Har- rison was being sent in a similar capacity to Cap Frangais, but evi- dence is lacking that he fulfilled his mission.
At the same time Mor- ris suggested to Deane that they engage in a little private business for themselves through Saint Domingue. He instructed Deane to continue sending supplies by way of Martinique and Saint Domingue since they were the safest routes. Three months later Nicholas Rogers, an American agent at Port-au-Prince, informed Deane that there were eleven American ships at the Cap and that five or six had just left the M61le for the United States.
At the end of June,Morris announced to Deane the safe arrival at Charleston, South Carolina, via Saint Domingue, of the ship La Roche in which he and Deane had an interest of one hundred thousand livres.
Haiti's complicated relationship with the US - CNN
If he took any artillery of- ficers with him, they should be disguised as sailors or passengers for Saint Domingue. A few days later Deane wrote the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Continental Congress that he hoped that the ThUrese which he had sent by that route had arrived. Even when ships landed their cargo in the island, it did not neces- sarily reach its ultimate destination. One of the very first of these, a Prussian by the name of Voidke who later participated in the siege of Quebec with the rank of brigadier general, passed through the colony in the fall of with a pass- port from Vergennes authorizing him to join the Americans.
On May 9,the Continental Congress did appoint a committee to arrange with a Frenchman, Bajeu Laporte, the terms of a contract for raising a regiment of French soldiers in Saint Domingue and Martinique,77 but the records fail to reveal whether the contract was executed.
The Continental brig, Lexington, did make a cruise to the Caribbean in the spring ofbut it was captured on its 72 Paullin, Out-Letters, II, The following sources proved of no ad- ditional value in determining the extent of French aid by way of Saint Domin- gue: Doniol, Participation de la France, II, Some six hundred colored and Negro troops from Saint Domingue par- ticipated in the attack.
Fact Sheet: U.S. Relations With Haiti
The number has been estimated at from six hundred to fifteen hundred. Hough, The Siege of Savannah Albany,pp. Steward based this statement upon an official report which Rush was supposed to have obtained while minister to France and which Stew- ard said he had before him as he wrote. The Secretary of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania informs me, how- ever, that a member of the staff had not found it among the papers of Rush during that time. Letter of February 6, Rodney kept a close watch on the Wind- ward Passage to the end of the war.
One of the proposals looked to the exchange of Gibraltar by the British for certain French and Spanish possessions. From — the Clinton Administration imposed an economic blockade, which further impoverished the country, and eventually the Clinton Administration intervened militarily in to restore Aristide to power. The United States has taken a leading role in organizing international involvement with Haiti. Four-fifths of Haiti's college-educated citizens live outside Haiti.
Political insecurity and the failure of Haiti's governments to invest in developing the country's natural and human resources has contributed significantly to the country's current state of underdevelopment.
Sincethe U. Government funds have been used to support programs that have addressed a variety of problems. Some experts, however, have criticized the conditional nature of U. Haiti has been plagued for decades by extremely high unemployment and underemployment. The precipitous decline in urban assembly sector jobs, from a high of overin to fewer than 20, inexacerbated the scarcity of jobs. To revitalize the economy, U. More recently, programs that help to increase commercial bank lending to micro-enterprises, especially in the agricultural sector, have helped to create a significant number of jobs.
To counter this threat, the U. The largest earthquake ever recorded in Haiti's history occurred on January 12, and registered 7. The quake centered 15 miles southwest of Port-au-Prince and caused catastrophic damage. Ambassador to Haiti Kenneth H.
Policy & History
Merten issued a disaster declaration and the U. Twenty-six Navy and Coast Guard vessels, 68 helicopters, and over 50 fixed-wing aircraft assisted in the transportation of supplies, relief and rescue personnel, and casualties. Air Force Special Operations command personnel dispatched to Port-au-Prince within 24 hours of the earthquake and restored air traffic control capability and enabled airfield operations, provided immediate medical services, and conducted search and rescue missions.