‘Friends and enemies’ - The Hindu
Gopalkrishna Gandhi: August 10, ; ISSUE DATE: August 20, ; UPDATED: August Imaginary conversation between Mahatama Gandhi and Jinnah. The personal life of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah () arouses great compassion simply because he was an astutely rational. As leaders and thinkers, Jinnah and Gandhi deserve full Chagla states that Jinnah cultivated no relationships outside politics, and had 'no no matter how far apart he stood from them on the issues at hand, whether he was.
‘Friends and enemies’
Sadly, these basic courtesies have been denied them rather too often. Gandhi has been relentlessly over-praised and Jinnah has attracted few apologists outside circles as willing to rewrite history as to understand its complexities This brought them into close contact with literally thousands of people Much of what we know about the two comes from the testimonies of these witnesses. The picture that emerges is, of course, unclear, because although politics may be about trying to win friends, the result is often the making of enemies.
Gandhi, it must be said, left a much better impression on most of his contemporaries than Jinnah, and this has heavily tilted the verdict of history in as far as it is influenced by personal memoirs. The result has been a body of literature about him that is saccharine in the extreme. The most sincere voices that speak up for him come largely from those impressed by his easy brilliance, and relate to his early years. Two British Secretaries of State for India were open admirers: Of hostile witnesses, pride of place must go to Lord Mountbatten.
The range of critical remarks he made about Jinnah is quite striking. He was a solitary figure at several points in his career, but this characteristic seems to have attached to him regardless of his situation. Politics for most politicians is a serious business, and for Jinnah more than most. He never mastered the deftness of touch that Gandhi could employ. But there was once a lighter spirit discernible in him, captured for us by Sarojini Naidu. Her extended description of him contains most of the well-known phrases applied to his early career and it deserves to be quoted at length on the subject of his character, if only to counterbalance much of what is found elsewhere.
In she contributed an introduction to a collection of his speeches, in which she describes him as: This reflects the extraordinary reverence in which his contemporaries held him and the way that he seems not to have abused the space and authority this granted him. He was essentially the same in public and private.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah - Wikipedia
He never stood on ceremony, or hectored his opponents, no matter how far apart he stood from them on the issues at hand, whether he was addressing the king or a minor Raj official. His ability to reach out informally across political and social divides was extraordinary; during his trip to England inhe managed to befriend the very mill workers that his hand-spinning was intended to condemn to unemployment.
Gandhi also enjoyed a much wider and warmer kind of political support than that which Jinnah constructed so painstakingly. His political aims were easily understood and generally shared.
Just as importantly, his methods were thought to be correct; Indian freedom under Gandhi was to be won in an Indian way. To oppose him coming from within either orthodox Hinduism or broad Congress philosophy would have seemed either irreverent or un-Indian.
His first step towards a brighter career occurred when the acting Advocate General of Bombay, John Molesworth MacPherson, invited Jinnah to work from his chambers. Dastoor, a Bombay presidency magistrateleft the post temporarily and Jinnah succeeded in getting the interim position. After his six-month appointment period, Jinnah was offered a permanent position on a 1, rupee per month salary. Jinnah politely declined the offer, stating that he planned to earn 1, rupees a day—a huge sum at that time—which he eventually did.
This controversy arose out of Bombay municipal elections, which Indians alleged were rigged by a "caucus" of Europeans to keep Sir Pherozeshah Mehta out of the council. Jinnah gained great esteem from leading the case for Sir Pherozeshah, himself a noted barrister. Although Jinnah did not win the Caucus Case, he posted a successful record, becoming well known for his advocacy and legal logic. Before Tilak unsuccessfully represented himself at trial, he engaged Jinnah in an attempt to secure his release on bail.
Jinnah did not succeed, but obtained an acquittal for Tilak when he was charged with sedition again in He was what God made him, a great pleader. He had a sixth sense: That is where his talents lay But he drove his points home—points chosen with exquisite selection—slow delivery, word by word. Indian independence movement and Pakistan movement Jinnah in Inmany Indians had risen in revolt against British rule.
In the aftermath of the conflict, some Anglo-Indians, as well as Indians in Britain, called for greater self-government for the subcontinent, resulting in the founding of the Indian National Congress in Most founding members had been educated in Britain, and were content with the minimal reform efforts being made by the government.
Jinnah began political life by attending the Congress's twentieth annual meeting, in Bombay in December The Aga Khan later wrote that it was "freakishly ironic" that Jinnah, who would lead the League to independence, "came out in bitter hostility toward all that I and my friends had done He said that our principle of separate electorates was dividing the nation against itself.
He was a compromise candidate when two older, better-known Muslims who were seeking the post deadlocked. The council, which had been expanded to 60 members as part of reforms enacted by Minto, recommended legislation to the Viceroy. Only officials could vote in the council; non-official members, such as Jinnah, had no vote.
Throughout his legal career, Jinnah practised probate law with many clients from India's nobilityand in introduced the Wakf Validation Act to place Muslim religious trusts on a sound legal footing under British Indian law.
Two years later, the measure passed, the first act sponsored by non-officials to pass the council and be enacted by the Viceroy. He joined the following year, although he remained a member of the Congress as well and stressed that League membership took second priority to the "greater national cause" of an independent India. In Aprilhe again went to Britain, with Gokhale, to meet with officials on behalf of the Congress.
Gokhale, a Hindu, later stated that Jinnah "has true stuff in him, and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu—Muslim Unity". By coincidence, he was in Britain at the same time as a man who would become a great political rival of his, Mohandas Gandhia Hindu lawyer who had become well known for advocating satyagrahanon-violent non-cooperation, while in South Africa. Jinnah attended a reception for Gandhi, and returned home to India in January Nevertheless, Jinnah worked to bring the Congress and League together.
Inwith Jinnah now president of the Muslim League, the two organisations signed the Lucknow Pactsetting quotas for Muslim and Hindu representation in the various provinces. Although the pact was never fully implemented, its signing ushered in a period of co-operation between the Congress and the League. Along with political leaders Annie Besant and Tilak, Jinnah demanded " home rule " for India—the status of a self-governing dominion in the Empire similar to Canada, New Zealand and Australia, although, with the war, Britain's politicians were not interested in considering Indian constitutional reform.
British Cabinet minister Edwin Montagu recalled Jinnah in his memoirs, "young, perfectly mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecticsand insistent on the whole of his scheme".
She was the fashionable young daughter of his friend Sir Dinshaw Petitand was part of an elite Parsi family of Bombay. Rattanbai defied her family and nominally converted to Islamadopting though never using the name Maryam Jinnah, resulting in a permanent estrangement from her family and Parsi society.
The couple's only child, daughter Dinawas born on 15 August There was unrest across India, which worsened after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsarin which British troops fired upon a protest meeting, killing hundreds.
In the wake of Amritsar, Gandhi, who had returned to India and become a widely respected leader and highly influential in the Congress, called for satyagraha against the British. Gandhi's proposal gained broad Hindu support, and was also attractive to many Muslims of the Khilafat faction. These Muslims, supported by Gandhi, sought retention of the Ottoman caliphatewhich supplied spiritual leadership to many Muslims.
The caliph was the Ottoman Emperorwho would be deprived of both offices following his nation's defeat in the First World War.
Gandhi had achieved considerable popularity among Muslims because of his work during the war on behalf of killed or imprisoned Muslims. Gandhi's local style of leadership gained great popularity with the Indian people. Jinnah criticised Gandhi's Khilafat advocacy, which he saw as an endorsement of religious zealotry. He opposed Gandhi, but the tide of Indian opinion was against him. At the session of the Congress in NagpurJinnah was shouted down by the delegates, who passed Gandhi's proposal, pledging satyagraha until India was independent.
Jinnah did not attend the subsequent League meeting, held in the same city, which passed a similar resolution. Because of the action of the Congress in endorsing Gandhi's campaign, Jinnah resigned from it, leaving all positions except in the Muslim League.
Jinnah sought alternative political ideas, and contemplated organising a new political party as a rival to the Congress. He showed much skill as a parliamentarian, organising many Indian members to work with the Swaraj Partyand continued to press demands for full responsible government.
Inas recognition for his legislative activities, he was offered a knighthood by Lord Readingwho was retiring from the Viceroyalty. The review began two years early as Baldwin feared he would lose the next election which he did, in The Cabinet was influenced by minister Winston Churchillwho strongly opposed self-government for India, and members hoped that by having the commission appointed early, the policies for India which they favoured would survive their government.
A minority of Muslims, though, withdrew from the League, choosing to welcome the Simon Commission and repudiating Jinnah. Most members of the League's executive council remained loyal to Jinnah, attending the League meeting in December and January which confirmed him as the League's permanent president.
At that session, Jinnah told the delegates that "A constitutional war has been declared on Great Britain. Negotiations for a settlement are not to come from our side By appointing an exclusively white Commission, [ Secretary of State for India ] Lord Birkenhead has declared our unfitness for self-government.
Jinnah, though he believed separate electorates, based on religion, necessary to ensure Muslims had a voice in the government, was willing to compromise on this point, but talks between the two parties failed.
He put forth proposals that he hoped might satisfy a broad range of Muslims and reunite the League, calling for mandatory representation for Muslims in legislatures and cabinets. These became known as his Fourteen Points. He could not secure adoption of the Fourteen Points, as the League meeting in Delhi at which he hoped to gain a vote instead dissolved into chaotic argument.
MacDonald desired a conference of Indian and British leaders in London to discuss India's future, a course of action supported by Jinnah. Three Round Table Conferences followed over as many years, none of which resulted in a settlement.
Jinnah was a delegate to the first two conferences, but was not invited to the last. His biographers disagree over why he remained so long in Britain—Wolpert asserts that had Jinnah been made a Law Lordhe would have stayed for life, and that Jinnah alternatively sought a parliamentary seat.
From then on, Muhammad Jinnah would receive personal care and support from her as he aged and began to suffer from the lung ailments which would kill him.
She lived and travelled with him, and became a close advisor. Muhammad Jinnah's daughter, Dina, was educated in England and India.