Native Americans Gave Places, Animals, Plants Their Names
When the bison were exterminated from North America, indigenous The first came slowly: European settlers brought cattle with them, and those treaty, cementing their economic and cultural relationship with the animal. that the relations between the English settlers and Native Americans were far The arrival of the Europeans meant a drastic change for the Native Americans. .. Indians did not keep any domestic animals except dogs and hawks prior to the. While the ecological havoc wrought by European settlers has been well And in plant-animal relationships a certain reciprocity was implied.
Instead of enslaving Native Americans in farming and mining operations, the French exploited existing inter-tribal alliances and rivalries to establish trade relationships with the Huron, Montagnais, and Algonquins along the St.
Lawrence River and further inland toward the Great Lakes. These Native Americans competed for exclusive status as intermediaries between other Indian traders and the French. Although Native Americans did most of the work, tracking, trapping, and skinning the animals and transporting the pelts to French traders, they drove hard bargains for their furs.
French traders exchanged textiles, weapons, and metal goods for the furs of animals such as beavers, bears, and wolves. The trade strengthened traditional clan leaders' positions by allowing them to distribute these trade goods to their clan members as they saw fit.
The Fur Trade - Indian Country Wisconsin - Native American Indians
Jesuit Catholic missionaries managed to convert considerable numbers of Huron because the priests learned the local languages and exhibited bravery in the face of danger. French officials offered additional incentive for conversion by allowing Christian Hurons to purchase French muskets.
In the eighteenth century, the Dutch and English competed with the French for trade and territory, which gave local Indians continued economic, diplomatic, and military leverage as Europeans competed for their trade and military alliances through the seventeenth century.
Unlike the French and Spanish, the Dutch did not emphasize religious conversion in their relationships with Native Americans. They established a fur trade alliance with the Iroquois confederacy, the most powerful Native American empire in 17th-century North America.
Although smallpox and other European diseases drastically reduced the Iroquois population, the confederation remained strong because they negotiated an advantageous alliance with the Dutch.
Dutch weapons helped the Iroquois to defeat the Huron, who were leaders of the other major pan-Indian confederacy in the area. The name of the Albaamaha, a tribe native to the state.
It could be derived from the word albina, which means "campsite" in their own language, or from the Choctaw alba amo, which mean "clearing brush. Alaxsxix, which is a name from language of the Unangan people whom the Russians called Aleuts. It means "place the sea crashes against.
Arizonac, which is a Spanish corruption of a local Indian name-- possibly the Tohono O'odham word alishonag, which means "little spring. Quinnitukqut, "long river," which is what the Mohegan tribe called the longest river in New England. Likely from Hawaiian Hawai'i, from Proto-Polynesian hawaiki, meaning "place of the gods.
May be derived from Illiniwek, which is what the Illini tribe called themselves. It means roughly "superior people. Ayuhwa, which is one of the tribal names of the Ioway tribe, meaning as "sleepy ones. Kansa, which is the name of the Kansa tribe. Literally the name means "south" and is a shortened form of their own tribal name for themselves, "People of the South Wind. Kentake, which is believed to derive from Iroquoian words for "meadow" or "field. Native peoples were great hunters and productive farmers.
They built towns and traded over large distances with other tribes. These were the people the European explorers met when their ships landed in America.
Europeans carried a hidden enemy to the Indians: Native peoples of America had no immunity to the diseases that European explorers and colonists brought with them.
Diseases such as smallpoxinfluenzameaslesand even chicken pox proved deadly to American Indians. Europeans were used to these diseases, but Indian people had no resistance to them.
American Indians at European Contact
Sometimes the illnesses spread through direct contact with colonists. Other times, they were transmitted as Indians traded with one another.
The result of this contact with European germs was horrible. Sometimes whole villages perished in a short time. As early asEnglish explorer Thomas Harriot observed how European visits to the small villages of coastal North Carolina Indians killed the Natives.
The disease was also so strange that they neither knew what it was nor how to cure it. The introduction of European diseases to American Indians was an accident that no one expected. Neither the colonists nor the Indians had a good understanding of why this affected the Native people so badly.
The great impact of disease on the Native population of America is an important part of the story of European exploration. Experts believe that as much as 90 percent of the American Indian population may have died from illnesses introduced to America by Europeans. This means that only one in ten Natives survived this hidden enemy. Their descendants are the 2. New trade goods represented another big change that European explorers and colonists brought to American Indians.
Soon after meeting their European visitors, Indians became very interested in things that the colonists could provide. In a short time, the Indians began using these new materials and products in their everyday lives. Native hunters were eager to trade prepared deer hides and other pelts for lengths of colored cloth.
Metal tools such as axes, hoes, and knives became valuable new resources.
Soon American Indian men put aside their bows and arrows for European firearmspowder, and lead shot.