The lecture summarized the main arguments in his book, Doing the Continental: A New Canadian-American Relationship (Dundurn, ). Dyment explained. Through the new media, Canadians became familiar with US In August Canada and the US signed a plan for joint continental air. A New Canadian-American Relationship Advance Praise for Doing the Continental: "Everyone has opinions about the state of Canada-U.S. relations, but few.
Most went to Nova Scotia and inmigrated to Sierra Leone. About black slaves were brought in by Loyalist owners; they remained slaves in Canada until the Empire abolished slavery in Beforeabout 30,—40, black people entered Canada; many were already free and others were escaped slaves who came through the Underground Railroad. War of The Treaty of Pariswhich ended the war, called for British forces to vacate all their forts south of the Great Lakes border.
Britain refused to do so, citing failure of the United States to provide financial restitution for Loyalists who had lost property in the war. The Jay Treaty in with Great Britain resolved that lingering issue and the British departed the forts. Thomas Jefferson saw the nearby British imperial presence as a threat to the United Statesand so he opposed the Jay Treatyand it became one of the major political issues in the United States at the time.
The Americans were angered by British harassment of U. American "honor" was an implicit issue. The Americans were outgunned by more than 10 to 1 by the Royal Navybut could call on an army much larger than the British garrison in Canada, and so a land invasion of Canada was proposed as the only feasible, and most advantegous means of attacking the British Empire.
Americans on the western frontier also hoped an invasion would bring an end to British support of Native American resistance to the westward expansion of the United Statestypified by Tecumseh 's coalition of tribes.
There was some hope that settlers in western Canada—most of them recent immigrants from the U. However, the American invasions were defeated primarily by British regulars with support from Native Americans and Upper Canada Ontario militia.
Aided by the powerful Royal Navy, a series of British raids on the American coast were highly successful, culminating with an attack on Washington that resulted in the British burning of the White HouseCapitoland other public buildings.
At the end of the war, Britain's American Indian allies had largely been defeated, and the Americans controlled a strip of Western Ontario centered on Fort Malden. However, Britain held much of Maine, and, with the support of their remaining American Indian allies, huge areas of the Old Northwest, including Wisconsin and much of Michigan and Illinois. With the surrender of Napoleon inBritain ended naval policies that angered Americans; with the defeat of the Indian tribes the threat to American expansion was ended.
The upshot was both sides had asserted their honour, Canada was not annexed, and London and Washington had nothing more to fight over. The war was ended by the Treaty of Ghentwhich took effect in February Canada reduced American immigration for fear of undue American influence, and built up the Anglican church as a counterweight to the largely American Methodist and Baptist churches.
The myth that the Canadian militia had defeated the invasion almost single-handed, known logically as the "militia myth", became highly prevalent after the war, having been propounded by John StrachanAnglican Bishop of York.
Doing the Continental: A New Canadian-American Relationship - David Dyment - Google Livres
A small interlocking elite, known as the Family Compact took full political control. Democracy, as practiced in the US, was ridiculed. The policies had the desired effect of deterring immigration from United States. Revolts in favor of democracy in Ontario and Quebec "Lower Canada" in were suppressed; many of the leaders fled to the US.
Alabama claims[ edit ] An editorial cartoon on Canada—United States relations, I have told him that we can never be united. One result was toleration of Fenian efforts to use the U. More serious was the demand for a huge payment to cover the damages caused, on the notion that British involvement had lengthened the war. Seward negotiated the Alaska Purchase with Russia inhe intended it as the first step in a comprehensive plan to gain control of the entire northwest Pacific Coast.
Seward was a firm believer in Manifest Destinyprimarily for its commercial advantages to the U. Seward expected British Columbia to seek annexation to the U.
Soon other elements endorsed annexation, Their plan was to annex British ColumbiaRed River Colony Manitobaand Nova Scotiain exchange for the dropping the damage claims. The idea reached a peak in the spring and summer ofwith American expansionists, Canadian separatists, and British anti-imperialists seemingly combining forces.
The plan was dropped for multiple reasons. London continued to stall, American commercial and financial groups pressed Washington for a quick settlement of the dispute on a cash basis, growing Canadian nationalist sentiment in British Columbia called for staying inside the British Empire, Congress became preoccupied with Reconstruction, and most Americans showed little interest in territorial expansion.
The " Alabama Claims " dispute went to international arbitration. Britain paid and the episode ended in peaceful relations. Prior to Confederation, there was an Oregon boundary dispute in which the Americans claimed the 54th degree latitude. That issue was resolved by splitting the disputed territory; the northern half became British Columbia, and the southern half the states of Washington and Oregon.
Strained relations with America continued, however, due to a series of small-scale armed incursions named the Fenian raids by Irish-American Civil War veterans across the border from to in an attempt to trade Canada for Irish independence. The British government, in charge of diplomatic relations, protested cautiously, as Anglo-American relations were tense. Much of the tension was relieved as the Fenians faded away and in by the settlement of the Alabama Claimswhen Britain paid the U.
Disputes over ocean boundaries on Georges Bank and over fishing, whaling, and sealing rights in the Pacific were settled by international arbitration, setting an important precedent. French American Afterthe pace of industrialization and urbanization was much faster in the United States, drawing a wide range of immigrants from the North. It was common for people to move back and forth across the border, such as seasonal lumberjacks, entrepreneurs looking for larger markets, and families looking for jobs in the textile mills that paid much higher wages than in Canada.
By then, the American frontier was closing, and thousands of farmers looking for fresh land moved from the United States north into the Prairie Provinces.
The net result of the flows were that in there wereAmerican-born residents in Canada 3. The issue was unimportant until a gold rush brought tens of thousands of men to Canada's Yukon, and they had to arrive through American ports. Canada needed its port and claimed that it had a legal right to a port near the present American town of HainesAlaska.
It would provide an all-Canadian route to the rich goldfields. The dispute was settled by arbitration, and the British delegate voted with the Americans—to the astonishment and disgust of Canadians who suddenly realized that Britain considered its relations with the United States paramount compared to those with Canada.
The arbitrartion validated the status quo, but made Canada angry at Britain. To head off future embarrassments, in the two sides signed the International Boundary Waters Treaty and the International Joint Commission was established to manage the Great Lakes and keep them disarmed.
It was amended in World War II to allow the building and training of warships. Canadian manufacturing interests were alarmed that free trade would allow the bigger and more efficient American factories to take their markets.
The Conservatives made it a central campaign issue in the electionwarning that it would be a "sell out" to the United States with economic annexation a special danger. In Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier went farther than most Canadians would go when he proposed a reciprocity agreement with the United States.
In the Canadian election campaign old animosities reappeared, the Conservatives were elected and reciprocity died. Nevertheless, the new Prime Minister Robert Borden quickly reassured the Americans that he wanted to maintain good relations. That message probably eased tensions, particularly after Canada entered the First World War automatically under Britain inwhile the United States remained neutral.
When the US itself finally entered the war inthe two countries recognized their common heritage and interests to an unprecedented extent. Later, with Prime Minister Mackenzie King 's Liberals in power, there was an ever stronger tendency to emphasize Canada's "North American" character and, by implication, its similarity to the US.
Canada–United States relations - Wikipedia
In the s and s Canadians and Americans mingled as never before. Canadian defence strategy was altered as planners dismissed the possibility of cross-border conflict.
Economic and cultural linkages strengthened as suspicions of American influence receded. Canada and the US established legations in and no longer dealt with each other through British offices. More important was the impact of American popular culture through radio, motion pictures and the automobile. The Canadian government tried to regulate broadcasting and film but largely failed.
Inas another European war loomed, Roosevelt publicly promised support if Canada was ever threatened. Roosevelt did co-operate closely after the Second World War erupted in September Although the US remained neutral, Roosevelt and King reached two important agreements that formalized the American commitment: Both agreements won widespread popular approval.
Public-opinion polls indicated that many Canadians wanted to join the US. This new affection frightened King, but Canada retained and even expanded defence and other relations with the US after the war.
Some Canadians deplored the growing links. Vincent Massey and Walter Gordon headed royal commissions on culture and economic policy that were critical of American influence in Canada. In Parliamentthe Pipeline Debate and the debate on the Suez Crisis indicated that some parliamentarians also feared American influence upon Canada's government and its attitudes.
Nevertheless, he lamented Canada's increasing distance from Britain and the extent of American cultural and other influence. This feeling turned into suspicion of the US itself when John Kennedy became president in The leaders disliked each other, and policy differences grew rapidly.
The Americans openly accused Diefenbaker of failing to carry out commitments. In the general election, Diefenbaker accused the Americans of gross interference, blaming them for his election loss.
Canada–United States relations
The Relationship Strains Both countries expected better relations when the Liberals assumed power. Byhowever, relations had deteriorated significantly as Prime Minister Lester Pearson and Canadians found it difficult to give the US the support it demanded during the Vietnam War. By the Canadian government openly expressed its disagreement with American policies in Southeast Asia.
Canadians generally became less sympathetic to American influence and foreign policy. A nationalist movement demanded that American influence be significantly reduced. The first major nationalist initiatives occurred in cultural affairs, but those most offensive to Americans, such as the National Energy Programwere economic. Relations during the first Reagan administration were strained. It was evident that the government of Pierre Trudeau and the administration of Ronald Reagan perceived international events from a different perspective.
Canada, nevertheless, did permit cruise missile testing despite strong domestic opposition. Canadian public opinion did not reject these initiatives, and polls in and even showed strong support for Free Tradethough this support declined in Free Trade Transformation After protracted negotiations, the two governments reached a tentative trade agreement on 3 October This agreement became the central issue of the Canadian general election of which the Mulroney Conservatives decisively won.
The trade agreement quickly came into effect, and Canadian-American economic relations were fundamentally changed. The trade agreement did not end disputes, in part because promised agreements on subsidies and countervailing actions did not materialize. Moreover, the disparity in size between the two partners meant that on truly controversial issues in the US Congress, such as softwood lumberthe Canadian government had to give way.
Nevertheless, trade between the two countries grew dramatically with the US taking 80 per cent of Canada's exports by and Canada receiving 70 per cent of its imports from the United States.
These figures lead many observers to conclude that Canada has cast its fate to North American winds.