Interpersonal relationship - Wikipedia
Social media is changing our relationship styles in several important ways. of social media, it's easy to approach someone you'd like to meet, and this We run the risk of alienating the people who populate our daily lives in. An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between . Later relationships are often marked by shrinking social networks, as the intimacy, and passionate love to those in longer or later -life relationships. .. Flourishing relationships also allow a dynamic balance between focus on. The World Health Organization now recognizes social relationships Ph.D. investigates how social relationships shape health throughout the life course. of this study was the dynamic measurement of children's interaction.
Loss of trust and betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship. Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems and reestablish trust and belief in others. Ending — The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by breakups, death, or by spatial separation for quite some time and severing all existing ties of either friendship or romantic love.
Terminating a relationship[ edit ] According to the latest Systematic Review of the Economic Literature on the Factors associated with Life Satisfaction dating fromstable and secure relationships are beneficial, and correspondingly, relationship dissolution is harmful.
Breaking up can actually be a positive experience when the relationship did not expand the self and when the breakup leads to personal growth.
Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) Study - University of Michigan
They also recommend some ways to cope with the experience: Purposefully focussing on the positive aspects of the breakup "factors leading up to the break-up, the actual break-up, and the time right after the break-up" Minimising the negative emotions Journaling the positive aspects of the breakup e. This exercise works best, although not exclusively, when the breakup is mutual.
Furthermore, rebound relationships don't last any shorter than regular relationships. One reason cited for divorce is infidelity. The determinants of unfaithfulness are debated by dating service providers, feminists, academics and science communicators.
Conversely, costs are the negative or unpleasant aspects of the partner or their relationship. Comparison level includes what each partner expects of the relationship. The comparison level is influenced by past relationships, and general relationship expectations they are taught by family and friends. Individuals in long-distance relationshipsLDRs, rated their relationships as more satisfying than individuals in proximal relationship, PRs.
LDR couples reported the same level of relationship satisfaction as couples in PRs, despite only seeing each other on average once every 23 days. Therefore, the costs and benefits of the relationship are subjective to the individual, and people in LDRs tend to report lower costs and higher rewards in their relationship compared to PRs.
Background[ edit ] While traditional psychologists specializing in close relationships have focused on relationship dysfunction, positive psychology argues that relationship health is not merely the absence of relationship dysfunction.
Additionally, healthy relationships can be made to "flourish. A social skills approach posits that individuals differ in their degree of communication skill, which has implications for their relationships. Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills. Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior.
Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing. Secure individuals are comfortable with intimacy and interdependence and are usually optimistic and social in everyday life. Securely attached individuals usually use their partners for emotion regulation so they prefer to have their partners in close proximity. Preoccupied people are normally uneasy and vigilant towards any threat to the relationship and tend to be needy and jealous.
Dismissing individuals are low on anxiety over abandonment and high in avoidance of intimacy. Dismissing people are usually self-reliant and uninterested in intimacy and are independent and indifferent towards acquiring romantic partners.
They are very fearful of rejection, mistrustful of others, and tend to be suspicious and shy in everyday life. Attachment styles are created during childhood but can adapt and evolve to become a different attachment style based on individual experiences. On the contrary, a good romantic relationship can take a person from an avoidant attachment style to more of a secure attachment style.
Romantic love The capacity for love gives depth to human relationships, brings people closer to each other physically and emotionally, and makes people think expansively about themselves and the world.
Attraction — Premeditated or automatic, attraction can occur between acquaintances, coworkers, lovers, etc. Studies have shown that attraction can be susceptible to influence based on context and externally induced arousal, with the caveat that participants be unaware of the source of their arousal. A study by Cantor, J. As supported by a series of studies, Zillman and colleagues showed that a preexisting state of arousal can heighten reactions to affective stimuli.
One commonly studied factor is physical proximity also known as propinquity. The MIT Westgate studies famously showed that greater physical proximity between incoming students in a university residential hall led to greater relationship initiation. Another important factor in the initiation of new relationships is similarity. Put simply, individuals tend to be attracted to and start new relationships with those who are similar to them.
These similarities can include beliefs, rules, interests, culture, education, etc. Individuals seek relationships with like others because like others are most likely to validate shared beliefs and perspectives, thus facilitating interactions that are positive, rewarding and without conflict. Development — Development of interpersonal relationships can be further split into committed versus non-committed romantic relationships, which have different behavioral characteristics.
More committed relationships by both genders were characterized by greater resource display, appearance enhancement, love and care, and verbal signs of possession. In contrast, less committed relationships by both genders were characterized by greater jealousy induction. In terms of gender differences, men used greater resource display than women, who used more appearance enhancement as a mate-retention strategy than men.
Some important qualities of strong, enduring relationships include emotional understanding and effective communication between partners. Idealization of one's partner is linked to stronger interpersonal bonds. As one woman stated: I also told him that there is nobody that I will be in relationship with besides him because we are both HIV positive, so we should work on our lives together, and we had a child, and he sees us spending the rest of our lives in this relationship.
I am willing to be in relationship with her up until we die because she managed to accept that I am taking tablets and after she knew, she also went for testing. I encouraged her to go and test, and she was not shocked by the fact that I am HIV positive because I think I am the one who was infected first.
And she went for testing and we both ended up taking tablets and are collecting it for each other.
We also remind each other about times of taking tablets. I just wish we could carry on loving each other and have enough money of getting married and be together till we die. His female partner mentioned how he used to frequently drink alcohol and shout at the family, which stopped after he tested positive for HIV.
Together, both partner accounts suggest that ART led to positive changes in their relationship. Among the few discordant couples, there was some evidence that ART may have a positive impact on relationship dynamics. For example, an HIV-negative man discussed a renewed commitment to his partner after her diagnosis, and he pledged to stay with her and support her with ART. Thus, it is possible that similar processes involving a shift in relationship dynamics may also occur within discordant couples.
Discussion Although some HIV patients did experience negative effects of their relationships on adherence, we were struck by the generally positive influence of partners, as well as the resourceful and resilient ways that partners utilised their relationships to maintain good adherence. In resource-poor settings where structural and economic factors can restrict access to HIV care and treatment, primary partnerships provide key sources of support for HIV patients grappling with these challenges.
The significant impact of these relationships on adherence indicates a need to incorporate primary partners into clinical practice and in other behavioural interventions with HIV-positive individuals. We found some evidence that relationship conflict may interfere with adherence to ART—specifically for women. As suggested by participants, this may occur through the pathway of poor mental health or as the manifestation of male dominance and control.
Other qualitative studies point to mental health as a key pathway linking relationship dynamics including conflict and adherence Illangasekare et al. We also found that for women, disclosure of missed pills acted as a trigger for verbal violence, which may be related to broader norms around male dominance.
- Relationship Dynamics That Aren’t Sustainable
- Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study
Fear of violence or experiences of violence prevents women from communicating about sensitive topics such as safer sex and HIV status Maman, Hogan, and KilonzaBlancand this reluctance may extend to adherence. However, we found more support for a positive and supportive role that partners play in helping HIV patients maintain good adherence. This suggests that within a context of high poverty, unemployment, and food insecurity, networks of exchange and reciprocity are essential for patients to obtain the resources required for adherence.
We also found that relationship dynamics such as intimacy and trust served as motivating factors for provision of social support—which is supported by the dyadic interdependence model. Another study in Kenyan couples found support for the interdependence model in explaining health-enhancing behaviors related to HIV Rogers et al.
Seroconcordant HIV-positive couples on ART expressed a renewed appreciation for their relationships, which was bound by the idea of a shared future. This is also consistent with the dyadic interdependence model, such that a perceived health threat may motivate couples to work together to overcome the threat to maintain the relationship Lewis et al.Multiple Relationship Dynamics - James Marshall - Full Length HD
The findings also suggest that for seroconcordant HIV-positive couples, there is a cyclical, rather than linear, relationship between adherence and relationship dynamics that operate in a feedback loop. For instance, couples with better quality relationships may be more equipped to support each other with HIV care and treatment; while at the same time, the act of taking ART together may bring couples closer together and improve the relationship.
Limitations Because we recruited a clinic-based sample engaged in care, it is possible that we inadvertently over-recruited informants with stronger and more stable partnerships. In addition, because we did not recruit participants based on couple HIV status, our sample consisted primarily of seroconcordant HIV-positive couples who were more likely to self-select to enrol in the study e.
We also excluded couples if they had experienced severe violence in the past six months or not disclosed. Finally, while relationship conflict was an issue that many couples faced in their relationships, only a few participants made the connection between conflict and non-adherence. Because our analytic approach considered the intensity of underlying themes, not just frequency, we presented the findings on relationship conflict.
Conclusions and Implications This study demonstrates the important role of positive relationship dynamics and partner support on adherence among couples living with HIV in South Africa. The findings highlighted the positive aspects of relationships such as love, commitment, and trust, and how these factors shape partner support around adherence, which we believe is a novel contribution to the literature on couples and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. For some couples, the shared experience of HIV appeared to enhance couple dynamics—allowing partners to more fully support each other with HIV care and treatment.
Jennifer S. Barber
As more healthy individuals initiate ART through test-and-treat policies in sub-Saharan Africa, it will be critical to develop interventions with couples to optimise engagement in HIV care and treatment—including adherence. Such adherence interventions should capitalise on positive relationship dynamics and social support structures that exist within many primary partnerships, or work to improve relationship dynamics in couples with higher levels of discord.
Such interventions could be adapted to help couples communicate and support each other with regards to HIV care and treatment. Thus, there is an opportunity to potentially leverage existing clinical infrastructure to expand services for couples living with HIV. Yet this would need to be accomplished in a way that does not force women to disclose to male partners especially if there is the risk for violence.
Regardless, it will be critical to continue to address upstream factors such as HIV status disclosure and intimate partner violence before research can move forward and reach couples in the most need of these services.
We would also like to thank the couples that participated in the study and the tireless efforts of the research staff at the Human Sciences Research Council in South Africa.
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National Department of Health. Department of Health; Republic of South Africa: