Culture of Chile - Wikipedia
The culture of Chile reflects the relatively homogeneous population as well as the geographic isolation of the country in relation to the rest of South America. .. Languages. Español · فارسی · Français · ქართული · Português · Русский · Türkçe. Body Language. Chileans stand closer than North Corporate Culture. The business Personal relationships are vital to doing business in Chile. Some light . Chilean culture tends to be relationship-driven and this is reflected in Chilean business culture. Becoming familiar and developing a personal relationship with .
Commonly, Chileans marry young in their early or mid-twenties and tend to have children relatively soon after marriage. Only 12 percent of Chilean women are still single at the age of forty-five.
People have quite conventional views about premarital sex, and living together before marriage is still relatively rare only 3 percent of women between the ages of twenty-five and forty-four. Because of the considerable religious and political influence of the Roman Catholic Church, Chile is the only country in Latin America without a divorce law. Instead, couples who want to end their marriage request an annulment of the civil marriage, under the pretext that a procedural error was made during the civil marriage ceremony.
As this implies a costly legal procedure, many Chileans just informally terminate a marriage, but this bars them from marrying again under Chilean law. The nuclear family is by far the dominant household unit in Chile. Ninety percent of the population lives with their family while only 8.
Family size has strongly decreased in recent decades. The average family consists of four persons, and the average number of children is 2. Chile is among the countries with the lowest fertility rate in Latin America, and with the most rapid rate of decrease. In most households 79 percent authority is held by men. Female-led households can mainly be found among low-income sectors.
Particularly among the middle and upper classes, housewives possess a large degree of discretional power in decisions concerning the ruling of their homes including acquisition of furniture and financial matters and the children's education. According to Chilean law and customs, when the father passes away half of the estate passes to his wife.
The other half is divided by the number of children plus two parts for the mother. So in a family with two children, the mother inherits three-quarters of the estate.
Age or gender differences among the children do not alter their rights to equal parts of the inheritance. Until very recently, however, Chilean legislation made a differentiation between "legitimate" born within the marriage and "illegitimate" children.
Depending on the specific situation, the latter had fewer or no rights for obtaining a part of the estate. In early this discriminatory legislation was abolished.
Although the nuclear family constitutes the basis of Chilean households, grandparents continue to exert considerable authority in family affairs. Moreover, and either by necessity or by choice, grandparents especially widowed grandparents frequently live with the family of one of their daughters or sons. Married children normally visit their parents over the weekend and it is not uncommon for them to talk with their parents by phone almost daily.
Aunts, uncles, and cousins are also considered to be close relatives and they frequently meet at family and social gatherings. Particularly in the lower classes, the extended family represents an indispensable source of support for coping with difficulties in hard times.
Chile's mountainous regions force architects to be creative, as these apartments built into a hillside in Renaca show. Chilean children are primarily cared for by their mothers. Both in the lower classes and within indigenous groups, however, older brothers and sisters do fill an important role in caring for toddlers, as their parents often work outside the home. In an increasing number of public services, ministries, and large factories, day care facilities for children are at the disposition of working mothers.
Child Rearing and Education. Young children are generally raised in a relatively relaxed manner. They are not sent to bed very early and fully participate in social and family gatherings, sometimes until very late at night. Chilean parents are generally inclined to pampering their children, by buying what they demand or by surprising them with presents at any time of the year.
Children are not explicitly encouraged to learn to become independent but rather are coaxed to remain close and loyal to the family whatever their age. So youngsters in Chile tend to become independent at a relatively late age, as they often leave home only when they marry. Parental authority remains even after children have an independent life, as parents believe they have still the right to get involved in important decisions and personal problems.
Chileans from all social backgrounds are very conscious about the importance of providing a good education for their children. As a rule, parents are geared up to make immense financial sacrifices to send their children to good schools and to finance their further education. The number of higher education centers in Chile has dramatically increased during the last decade.
In Chile had eight universities, while by this number increased to sixty, most of them being private institutions. In addition, the country has eighty professional institutes and technical training centers. Among young people aged eighteen to twenty-four, 19 percent attend an institution of higher education.
Etiquette Chilean etiquette does not differ very much from that of Western societies. Although Chileans are in general less formal than other Latin Americans, they definitively follow certain rules in social gatherings. During formal occasions people shake hands in a restrained way, while good friends may shake hands and embrace.
Chilean women normally salute acquaintances both male and female with one kiss on the right cheek. Chileans commonly use the formal "you" usted to address persons, independently of the interlocutor's social status.
Chileans are generally quite punctual for their business appointments. When invited into a home for dinner, however, it is expected that the guest will not show up before some twenty minutes after the agreed time. Chileans are quite restrained in public spaces and restaurants and it is particularly bad form to talk too loudly.
It is also considered imprudent to talk about the authoritarian past, Pinochet, the armed forces, and the like in social gatherings, as Chileans are quite divided on these sensitive subjects. A large majority of Chileans 73 percent are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church. Some 15 percent of the population identifies itself with several Protestant groups.
This includes Anglicans and Lutherans, but the vast majority of Chilean Protestants 90 percent belong to the Pentecostal Church. Another 4 percent of the population belongs to other religious groups Jews, Muslims, and Greek Orthodoxwhile 8 percent claim not to profess any religion. Chileans profoundly respect the religious beliefs of others, and religion seldom constitutes a source for conflict or disagreement.
The national authorities of the Roman Catholic Church have historically exerted a high degree of influence in Chile. The Church also offered legal support and institutional protection to many persecuted people.
Traditionally, the Chilean clergy made up of about two thousand priests, half of them foreign, and fifty-five hundred nuns have firmly embraced the cause of social justice. Following democratic restoration, Chilean bishops have actively participated in national debates about divorce, abortion, and the role of the family in modern society. Rituals and Holy Places. Many popular religious celebrations and processions are held in Chile.
One of the most colorful is the Festival of La Tirana. This festival is celebrated for three days in July in the village of La Tirana, some 40 miles 64 kilometers inland from the northern port of Iquique, near the Atacama Desert. This celebration is strongly influenced by the carnival of Oruro, Bolivia. During the celebrations, somepeople dance through the streets in colorful costumes and devil masks. The Festival of La Tirana is an expression of the religious blend between Catholicism and ancient indigenous practices.
Some people walk many miles on their knees to show their respect to the virgin and as recompense for the favors she has granted them. Death and the Afterlife. Chileans pay great tribute to loved ones who have passed away. Following death a wake and a funeral are held at a church where close friends and the extended family assist to the religious service. Most Chilean prefers graves, but in recent years an increasing number of people choose to be cremated.
It is common practice that each year on the anniversary of the death, a Catholic mass is offered in the deceased's memory. On November 1, All Saints' Day, a large number of Chileans visit the cemetery to bring flowers to the grave of family members and friends.
Most Chileans believe that there is an afterlife. Around 90 percent of the population is insured through public 61 percent and private 28 percent schemes to obtain access to all types of health services.
National health expenditure is 8 percent of the country's GDP. The public health system has 9. There are, however, big differences in the quality of medical help among the different income groups. While upper- and middle-class Chileans normally make use of the services of private clinics with excellent physicians and the latest medical technology, the lower class are forced to make use of relatively poorly-equipped public care centers and hospitals.
Behind the modern health care system, there is a habit in Chile of self-medication and the use of traditional herbs.
In southern Chile, elderly Mapuche Indians still consult their female shamans machis when they have health problems. Secular Celebrations Labor Day 1 May is a national holiday. Union leaders and government officials participate in worker gatherings that celebrate the importance of labor to the nation.
In coastal cities, people commemorate Prats and his crew by boarding small boats covered with Chilean flags and throwing flowers into the sea. The celebration of Chilean independence in takes place on 18 September. Chileans go into the streets to celebrate with folk dances and national dishes.
This is the country's most important secular celebration. Horses pull fishing boats with the morning catch onto a beach in Papudo. In recent years, indigenous groups have made it clear that this celebration does not represent everyone in the country. These holidays also mark the initiation of the summer vacation period for many people. The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. Until very recently, Chilean artists rarely obtained any financial support for their work from the state or other institutions.
In the Chilean Ministry of Education created Fondart, a national fund for the development of art and culture. Poetry has been the leading form within Chilean literature. The epic poem La Araucanawritten in the sixteenth century by the Spanish poet Alonso de Ercilla, is considered Chile's first major literary work.
In this classical work, Ercilla wonders at the natural beauty of Chile and expresses his admiration for the brave Araucanian Indians. In the twentieth century two great Chilean poets were awarded the Nobel prize in literature. Pablo Neruda received the Nobel prize in Both poets expressed in their work their love for both the nature and the people of Chile and the rest of Latin America. Chilean graphic arts have been dominated by paintings.
A good collection of the work of major Chilean painters since the nineteenth century are displayed in the Museum of Fine Arts and the Museum of Contemporary Art in Santiago.
During the twentieth century Chile produced several painters who have achieved fame outside the country, particularly in Europe and the United States. For instance, the works of Nemesio Antunez, Claudio Bravo, and Roberto Matta are present in major world art collections.
Language & Customs
Traditional folk music offers the best of Chile's performance arts. One of the country's greatest folk musicians has been Violeta Parra. During the s and s she travelled through the Chilean countryside to collect folk music and began to perform it in Santiago artistic circles. This was the beginning of a fruitful and creative period for Chilean folk music.
The classical pianist Claudio Arrau was Chile's most prominent performance artist of the twentieth century. Its main role is to advise the Chilean authorities in all matters referring science and technology. This commission also provides scholarships for M. In the period — a total of individuals obtained a four-year scholarships for their Ph. D, and for a M. In a National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development was established to finance first-rate research projects.
Chile Ski Resorts Language, Culture and Customs
Chilean social sciences are very prestigious in Latin America. They are practiced not only in universities but also in a large number of well-known private institutions that are mainly concentrated in Santiago. Bibliography Arroyo, Gonzalo et al. Chilean Rural Society, Historia del pueblo Mapuche, 2 ed. Chile since Independence, Brennan, John, and Alvaro Taboada. How to Survive in the Chilean Jungle? A Guide to the People, Politics, and Culture, Culture and Customs of Chile, Collier, Simon, and William F.
A History of Chile, —, Mujeres latinoamericanas en cifras: Cultures of the World: The Legacy of Spanish Capitalism, 2nd ed. Land and Society, Chilean Agriculture Overview, Where the Land Ends, Roraff, Susan, and Laura Camacho.
A Guide to Customs and Etiquette, Published in English by Macmillan as Chile: The centers of Southern Chile are located at lower altitudes and most of them are on volcano slopes. The scenery is notable, including scenic forests and panoramic views.
Surfing in Chile Chile is a great surfing destination, and from the Northern region to the Central region there are many beaches with the right conditions for the sport. It is possible to surf almost all year round except for the middle of the winter July and August when weather conditions are non-conducive to surfing.
In northern Chile, the waves are smaller, but very forceful, and between Arica and Iquiquetubes are common. Due to the difficult conditions of the Atacama Desertthere are many unexplored, quiet beaches in that area. In the Central Region, the water is a little bit colder, and there are steeper shores and bigger waves. Social Profiling Due to class structures it is commonplace for people to try and deduce another's position in the social rank.
This is primarily done through external appearances, i. As a result they present themselves in the best possible way. Women generally pat each other on the right forearm or shoulder. These are always accompanied by the appropriate greeting for the time of day - "buenos dias" good morning"buenas tardes" good afternoon or "buenas noches" good evening.
Between friends and family things will relax and become more unreserved - men may embrace and energetically pat each other on the back whilst women will kiss once on the right cheek.
Always let your Chilean counterpart progress to this stage of formality. Like many South Americans, Chileans use both their maternal and paternal surnames.
The father's surname is listed first and is the one used in conversation. If you know of any titles always try to use them. If no title exists then simply use "Senor" male or "Senora" female followed by the surname. When addressing older people with whom you have a personal relationship, who may be referred to as "don" male or "dona" female with their first name.
First names are used between close friends - wait until invited to move to a first name basis. Gift Giving Etiquette Some general etiquette guidelines include: Send flowers in advance. Do not give yellow roses as they indicate contempt. Do not give purple or black flowers as they symbolize death. Do not give scissors or knives as they indicate you want to sever the relationship. For a young girl's 15th birthday, a gift of gold jewellery is the norm. Gifts are opened when received.
Dining Etiquette Dining etiquette can be quite formal in Chile. As a general rule, observe and follow if ever unsure. Here are some basic dining etiquette guidelines: When sitting wait to be shown to your place.