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This development has been ubiquitous, occurring in both developed and developing countries. This shift is primarily from carbohydrate-rich staples cereals, roots, tubers to vegetable oils, animal products meat and dairy foods and sugar.
Food consumption trends and drivers
In contrast to the first stage, this one is country-specific and is influenced by culture, beliefs and religious traditions. In particular, such traditions can influence the extent to which animal products substitute vegetable products and the specific types of meat and animal products consumed.
Their contribution to energy intake varies markedly between developing and industrial countries. In developing countries such as in Africa and parts of Asia, cereals can contribute as much as 70 per cent of energy intake, while in industrial countries, for example, the UK, they provide approximately 30 per cent of energy intake and 50 per cent of available carbohydrates.
Projecting toit is expected that the share of cereals in calories for food use will continue to decline slowly from 54 per cent in to 49 per cent in and 46 per cent in Alexandratos Trends and future projections of available food consumption for individual cereal categories are outlined in electronic supplementary material, tables S1 and S2.
Globally, rice consumption grams per capita per day has seen negligible increases.
10 ways the UK's eating habits have changed - BBC News
This is due in large part to the declines in rice consumption in those countries that have predominantly rice-based diets e. China and other East Asian countries. In those regions where consumption levels have historically been low e.
Oceania, North America, Africa and Europemodest increases in consumption are projected, although these would still be far lower than the levels of intake in those regions with rice-based diets e. In contrast to this rather static situation for rice, global wheat consumption has increased at a faster rate than all other cereals.
This growth is largely accounted for by the increase in developing countries particularly in China, India from the green revolution, reflecting increased crop yields. In terms of future projections, growth in wheat consumption will continue to be greatest in developing countries. This will be accompanied by continuing growth in wheat imports, especially in the non-producing countries or those countries favouring a dependence on diets that are made up of roots, tubers, bananas and plantains.
The consumption of coarse grains including millet and maize has been declining or remained largely unchanged in most regions of the world since the s electronic supplementary material, tables S1 and S2. Specifically, the available food consumption of millet has declined globally and particularly in Africa.
Nonetheless, coarse grains including sorghum continue to be a major contributor to cereal consumption for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In world terms, maize consumption has increased and this increase is set to continue, albeit modestly, to Much of this increase is accounted for by the industrial countries, especially North America, which has seen developments in maize being used as sweeteners.
In many developing countries, non-animal-based sources of protein are still dominant. In other regions such as India, the Middle East and those in Africa, goats and camels are the main meats consumed. In the UK, poultry chicken has now become the most popular meat source. Apart from the muscle, other parts of the animal collectively described as offal are also consumed. Meat products such as sausages, burgers, pork pies, etc.
Unlike developing countries such as Brazil, which has seen a threefold increase, and China a dramatic ninefold increase in total meat consumption, it is not expected that countries such as India and Africa will see anything like these increases in the consumption of meat in the coming decades.
The UK has one of the lowest intakes of red meat in Europe and consumption has been decreasing over the past 30 years. Contributors to this recent decline have been a number of food-related health scares, e. Globally, however, a considerable amount of the increase in meat consumption may be attributed to the increase in poultry consumption worldwide.
Beef is the one meat group that on a worldwide level showed no increase in consumption levels during this time. This trend reflects the fact that while beef consumption rose modestly in some regions in developing countries such as China and Brazilit fell very modestly in most other regions North America, Oceania and Europe.
Projecting to suggests that the consumption of meat will increase moderately, and this will largely reflect increases in pork and particularly poultry. The levels of egg consumption grams per capita per day have doubled worldwide, with the increases more marked in developing countries compared with industrial countries.
However, within these two categories of countries, considerable variability is apparent, with some developing countries such as India and many countries in sub-Saharan Africa showing little or no rise, and others such as Brazil and China experiencing quite marked increases in egg consumption.
A similar picture of variability exists for the industrial countries, showing a modest rise in Europe, especially eastern Europe, a modest decline in North America and a sharper decline in Oceania electronic supplementary material, tables S5 and S6.
While milk intake has risen in a number of developing countries, especially in Asia, in the USA, it has declined sharply over the past several decades, and this has been mirrored by a rise in the consumption of carbonated beverages and juices Cavadini et al.
- Food consumption trends and drivers
The future patterns of consumption to for these livestock products suggest that the consumption of eggs will continue to rise and the consumption of milk will continue to fall at least in developed countrieswhile there will be no appreciable changes in butter and cheese consumption at the global level. The main fishes consumed are white fish, oily fish and seafood invertebrates. Fishes are an important source of good quality protein and are low in fat except for the oily fish which provide a very good source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
10 ways the UK's eating habits have changed
Fishes may also be a major source of iodine accumulated from their environment. Compared with many European countries such as Portugal and Spain, consumption of fish in the UK is low at 22 g per capita per day Office for National Statistics Past trends in fish consumption for individual fish categories categorized according to FAOSTAT from to and future projections to are outlined in electronic supplementary material, tables S7 and S8. Globally, little or no increases were seen in the consumption grams per capita per day of demersal, marine or pelagic fishes.
The main changes in consumption patterns may be seen for seafood and freshwater fishes, both of which have increased appreciably since the early s. The highest increases in seafood have occurred in Oceania and Asia, especially China, with increases from approximately 11 g per capita per day in to approximately 69 g per capita per day in Compared with industrial countries, developing countries have also seen higher increases in freshwater fish consumption, with China having had the most marked increase in consumption with a fold increase from to electronic supplementary material, table S8.
In terms of future trends, modest increases in pelagic fish consumption are predicted. The pelagic fishes are rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of benefit to cardiovascular health. Many food-based dietary guidelines recommend increased intake of this particular food group. Seafood consumption is set to continue to rise towards at a faster rate than any other fish category.
Furthermore, intake of seafood will far exceed any of the other fish categories and such a trend is expected in both industrial and developing countries. Recommending an increase in fish consumption is one area where the feasibility of dietary recommendations needs to be balanced against concerns for sustainability of marine stocks. While fruit and vegetables do not make a significant contribution to macronutrient intake, they make an important contribution to dietary fibre.
The legumes, especially the seed legumes, are of major nutritional importance, particularly in the developing world where in many countries they constitute a staple food along with cereals.
Consumption trends for roots and tubers including cassava, sweet potatoes, potatoes, yams, taro and plantain depict very modest declines worldwide and particularly in China and sub-Saharan Africa electronic supplementary material, tables S9 and S Indeed, 19 countries within sub-Saharan Africa depend on these products for at least 20 per cent of their food consumption in terms of calories Alexandratos This pattern reflects the sharp fall in the consumption of sweet potatoes in many developing countries accompanied by a parallel marked rise in the consumption of potatoes in a number of developing countries.
This is especially apparent in China where consumption levels of sweet potato dropped from g per capita per day in to 99 g per capita per day inwhile concurrently, the consumption of potatoes rose from 25 to 96 g per capita per day over the same time period.
Contrasting patterns in the consumption of potatoes may be seen between industrial falling levels and developing countries rising levels electronic supplementary material, tables S9 and S This highlights the fact that patterns observed for an overall food category roots and tubers are masking what is happening at the individual food level, i.
Thus, a much more complex picture is likely to exist than might be portrayed by observing trends in food category at its most aggregated level. Similarly, what is happening at the broad regional level does not give us the picture at country and obviously within-country level IDS data are required for that. Pulses have declined in consumption levels globally and in particular among developing countries, e. When discussing trends in fruit and vegetable consumption electronic supplementary material, tables S9 and S10it is important to remember that the data are referring to available rather than actual food consumption.
Not to do so would be to describe an overly optimistic picture in terms of fruit and vegetable intake, with their combined intake far exceeding the recommended levels of at least g or more per day. This allowed selection of realistic choices by staying as close as possible to the existing eating habits.
In particular, the authors pointed out the probable increase in sugar intake due to the high sugar content of some replacements foods eg, sandwich toppings.
In their recent study based on dietary intake of individuals 7—69 years participating in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey —, Temme et al. By comparing groups per tertile of dietary GHGEs, they observed that the major differences between high- and low-GHGE diets were in meat, cheese, and dairy consumption as well as in soft drinks girls, boys, and women and alcoholic beverages men consumption.
Differences in the type of meat consumed had the greatest effect on differences in GHGEs. Moreover, compared with diets in the highest tertile of GHGEs, those in the lowest tertile contained significantly less energy, fat especially saturated fatsanimal protein, and alcohol especially in men and significantly more vegetable protein, carbohydrates, and fiber.
Hence, those results suggest that reducing energy intakes, especially from animal-based foods and sugar- and alcohol-containing drinks, will help reduce the environmental impact of diets. In this population, total meat intake, which represented 3. The environmental impact GHGEs and land use of usual diets was not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality risk, indicating that an environmentally friendlier diet is not necessarily a healthier diet. Moreover, those substitutions were not isocaloric or equivalent with regard to nutrient content, possibly resulting in modeled diets with poorer nutritional quality.
The meat and deli meat food group was the strongest contributor to diet-associated GHGEs: Beyond these average numbers, a wide interindividual variability was observed for diet-related GHGEs. Figure 1 reveals a positive correlation between total ingested quantities including water and other beverages and diet-related GHGEs Figure 1panel A. In agreement with these relationships, diet-related GHGEs decreased in the scenarios in which energy intakes were reduced to meet individual energy needs.