Blood Pressure in Relation to Age and Frailty
purpose. To describe the cross-sectional relationships between age, blood pressure (BP), and quantitative measures of retinal vessel diameters in an older. While there is debate over how aggressively high blood pressure should be treated in older patients, the definition of a healthy blood pressure. How does your blood pressure change with aging? Age is a known risk factor for high blood pressure. In general, blood pressure rises as people get older.
This study, as part of the project investigating the relationship between retinal vascular signs and subsequent vascular events, describes the cross-sectional relationships between quantitative measures of retinal vessel diameters and age and BP in a general older Australian population. Methods Study Participants The BMES is a population-based cohort study of vision, common eye diseases, and other health outcomes in an urban population aged 49 years or more.
This study was conducted according to the recommendations of the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Western Sydney Area Human Ethics Committee. Written, informed consent was obtained from all participants.
In this study, retinal photographs of right eyes of of the participants were included, after participants were excluded who had no retinal photographs taken, had photographs with a poor image that precluded the measurement, or had retinal diseases that confounded the measurement of retinal vessel width. Grading Methods Details of image digitization and grading protocols were previously described by the ARIC investigators.
A digitized grid was placed over the image, and all vessels passing completely through zone B 0.
The grader identified each vessel as a venule or arteriole, using the original photograph for reference. The RetinalAnalysis software package measures and calculates the central and average width from five equidistant measures Fig. A density pixel histogram showing central width measurement was also displayed Fig. The validity of each measurement was judged by evaluating the consistency of the histogram and the visual image and the correlation between the average and central widths. The grader had the option of accepting the average or the central widths either the original measurement or the adjusted one or of declining both and remeasuring the vessel.
Branch measurements were excluded if either of the branches could not be measured accurately. The magnification of the retinal photographs taken by the fundus camera has been described.
The Parr-Hubbard formula is used to standardize individual vessel calibers of each eye, thus enabling comparison between arterial and venous caliber of different eyes.
Blood Pressure Chart: Low Normal High Reading by Age Table - Disabled World
A similar formula calculated the average venular widths of the eye, referred to as central retinal vein equivalent CRVE. Results reported in this study used measurements that incorporated information on the branches for the purpose of comparing with the ARIC results.
Intragrader and Intergrader Reliability The intergrader and intragrader grading reliabilities were assessed using a random subsample of and 97 right eye retinal photographs, respectively. A single measure of systolic S BP and diastolic D BP using a mercury sphygmomanometer was recorded from the first and fifth Korotkoff sounds. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between age, SBP, DBP, and MABP and retinal vessel measurements, adjusting for confounding variables including age, sex, smoking smoking was classified in three categories: Means and standard errors were calculated.
Adjusted means for the retinal vessel parameters were obtained using covariance analysis general linear model.Clutch's Unusually High Blood Pressure!
Results Sample Characteristics Among the persons included in our study, were women and were men. The average age of this study sample was Six subjects had missing data on hypertension status. Age- and sex-adjusted MABP were almost identical in the study group Retinal arterioles and venules narrowed with increasing age in both men and women Fig. Mean CRAE decreased from Similarly, mean CRVE decreased from The reduction was approximately 8. For each increasing decade of age, mean CRAE decreased by 4.
Similarly, mean CRVE decreased by 3. Mean AVR decreased with increasing age, both in men and women, up to age 70 to 79 years Fig. In women aged 80 years or older, mean AVR was unchanged but increased by 0.
Mean AVR was consistently higher in women than in men across the entire age spectrum of our study group Fig. Mean CRAE decreased by 1. AVR decreased by 0. Further adjustment for smoking and BMI, in addition to age and sex, did not alter the inverse linear relationships between retinal vessel widths and BP. These inverse relationships remained after further adjustment for blood glucose level, in addition to age, sex, and smoking data not shown. Discussion Using the same protocol and methods as the ARIC study, our findings in this general older Australian population were very similar to those from the U.
Blood Pressure in Relation to Age and Frailty
Retinal vessel diameters narrowed as age BP increased. This inverse linear relationship was similar in men and women and persisted after adjusting for possible confounders, including age, sex, BP, smoking, blood sugar levels, and BMI. Very high, sustained blood pressure will eventually cause blood vessels to weaken. Over time these weaken vessels can break, and blood will leak into the brain. The area of the brain that is being fed by these broken vessels start to die, and this will cause a stroke.
Additionally, if a blot clot blocks a narrowed artery, blood ceases to flow and a stroke will occur. Symptoms of a stroke include sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body, confusion, trouble speaking, or seeing, sudden severe headache. If you or someone with you has one or more of these signs, don't delay, call Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Your diet is high in saturated fats.
You consume more than two alcoholic drinks per day. You have high blood pressure or need medication to control your blood pressure.
You have high cholesterol levels or need medication to control your cholesterol level.
You exercise less than 30 minutes per day - Inactivity puts a person at higher risk of developing heart disease. You are overweight - Persons that have an excess of body fat are at a higher risk than persons of normal weight.
You are over 40 or a post-menopausal woman - Risk of heart disease increases over the age of 45 in males, over 55 in females. Family History - Children of parents that developed heart disease before the age of 55 have a higher risk of developing heart disease. You smoke - Cigarette smokers are at greater risk than pipe and cigar smokers, but all forms of tobacco are proven to be detrimental to the hearts health. If you answered yes to one or more of the above, you should talk to your doctor about how you can reduce your risk through lifestyle modifications.
Blood Pressure Medications There are several types of blood pressure medications and if one doesn't work, then ask your doctor to switch to another until your blood pressure becomes stable. Adalat - A dihydropyridine calcium blocker.
It is mostly used for treating hypertension and Angina Pectoris. Brand names of the drug include Procardia and Nifedical.