Spacetime - Wikipedia
The Gravity Probe B project was conceived in the late s but suffered decades of delays while other scientists ran tests corroborating Einstein's theory. According to Einstein, in the same way that a large ball placed on a elasticated cloth stretches the fabric and causes it to. In science fiction, space and time warps are a commonplace. They are used for rapid journeys around the galaxy, or for travel through time. But today's science. In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into The before-after relationship observed for timelike-separated events remains But general relativity is a theory of curved space and curved time, so if there are terms modifying the spatial.
See later in this page for an explanation. What are the consequences of time dilation?
One of the strangest consequences of time dilation is the so-called twin paradox. In this "paradox" one identical twin is sent at very high speed out into space. Because he or she is travelling at a very high speed all the clocks on board the rocket, including the body clock of the twin, slow down in accordance with the principle that "moving clocks run slow".
How Warp Speed Works
When the twin returns he or she will have aged only a little compared to the Earth-bound twin whose clock has been running "normally". A more detailed example of this can be found on the page Special Relativity in 15 Minutes! As an illustration of time dilation we can look to a group of people whose job it is to spend their time smashing very small particles together to see what happens. These people are called particle or high energy physicists.
For these scientists relativity is a routine part of their job, and indeed would be difficult if not impossible without it. The particles they smash apart are stuck very tightly together, and so need an immense amount of energy to break them.
One way but not the only way to give the particles sufficient energy is to move them very quickly in large magnetic rings called particle accelerators. This research is considered so important that all of the major countries of the world have access to such machines. As you can see, it needs a very big machine to break apart a very small particle!
Many of the experiments would be over much more quickly if it wasn't for the fact that, because of the very high speeds involved and special relativity, the internal "clocks" of the particles are greatly slowed down. For example, when two particles, such as atoms, are smashed into each other at very high speeds they sometimes momentarily stick together to form a new particle.
How Gravity Changes Time: The Effect Known as Gravitational Time Dilation | The Science Explorer
Most of these heavier particles promptly fall apart with very short time frames, sometimes within only a trillionth of a second. By speeding the process up not only is it possible to impart enough energy to the original particles to actually combine them, but the resulting, heavier, particle "lives" longer, in exact accordance with how special relativity says it should at the speed it's moving.
A further consequence of movement, any movement, is that distances shrink in the direction of motionalthough this only really becomes apparent at high percentages of the speed of light. Instead, because the distance has been dilated we will reach the star in only As we go ever faster the dilation becomes ever more dramatic, so that at You can experiment using different percentages and distances by entering them into the Dilation Calculator here.
The speed of light To state the seemingly obvious: So the question is how can it do this, and why doesn't it need infinite energy to go that fast? More accurately, they have no "rest mass". Photons are constantly moving but if we could stop one and weigh it we would find that it has no mass whatsoever.
The reasons for this are beyond the scope of these pages, but every experiment ever carried out to find any "rest-mass" in light has failed. Not only that but all the experiments have indicated that light is indeed mass-less. However, light doesn't always travel at the "speed of light", and it doesn't take much to slow it down. You are able to read this now only because light, either emitted from your screen or reflected off a paper copy, is striking the back of your eyes and stimulating special cells which in turn send a "picture" to your brain.
This is a very tiny percentage of the "usual" speed of light, but we have to be careful when we say that light travels at the speed of light. In fact, light can only travel "at the speed of light" in a vacuum, such as in space. When it does so it travels at very close tokm per secondmiles per second. Unlike the analogies used to explain events, such as firecrackers or lightning bolts, mathematical events have zero duration and represent a single point in spacetime.
Space and Time Warps - Stephen Hawking
The path of a particle through spacetime can be considered to be a succession of events. The series of events can be linked together to form a line which represents a particle's progress through spacetime. That line is called the particle's world line. It was only with the advent of sensitive scientific measurements in the mids, such as the Fizeau experiment and the Michelson—Morley experimentthat puzzling discrepancies began to be noted between observation versus predictions based on the implicit assumption of Euclidean space.
Gravitational time dilation
Each location in spacetime is marked by four numbers defined by a frame of reference: The 'observer' synchronizes the clocks according to their own reference frame.
In special relativity, an observer will, in most cases, mean a frame of reference from which a set of objects or events are being measured.
This usage differs significantly from the ordinary English meaning of the term. Reference frames are inherently nonlocal constructs, and according to this usage of the term, it does not make sense to speak of an observer as having a location.
Any specific location within the lattice is not important. The latticework of clocks is used to determine the time and position of events taking place within the whole frame. The term observer refers to the entire ensemble of clocks associated with one inertial frame of reference. So the Enterprise has to avoid the speed of light in order to keep the passengers onboard in synch with Federation time.
At the same time, it also must reach speeds faster than that of light in order to move around the universe in an efficient manner. Unfortunately, as Einstein states in his Special Theory of Relativity, nothing is faster than the speed of light.
Space travel therefore would be impossible if we're looking at the special relativity. According to Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, matter bends the fabric of space and time.
The distortion of the space-time continuum even affects the behavior of light. That's why we need to look at Einstein's later theory, the General Theory of Relativity, which describes how gravity affects the shape of space and flow of time.
Imagine a stretched-out sheet. If you place a bowling ball in the middle of the sheet, the sheet will warp as the weight of the ball pushes down on it.